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Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explain various types of data collection instruments, and available techniques for checking the calibration, validity, and reliability of the data collection instrument, in turn, guiding Ph.D. scholars to use a well-calibrated, valid, and reliable data collection instrument to ensure high-quality of research output.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Postmodernism philosophical paradigm; Inductive research approach; Observation data collection method; Longitudinal data collection time frame; Qualitative data analysis.
Findings/Result: As long as the Ph.D. scholars can understand the existing research data collection instruments and realize the need for the development of a new instrument and make mindful choices of instruments in addition to checking their calibration, validity, and reliability before collecting the research data to answer their research question they will be able to determine (on their own) data analysis techniques and appropriate statistical techniques in subsequent stages of the doctoral-level research process to comfortably claim their research findings.
Originality/Value: There is a vast literature about research data collection instruments and procedures to check their calibration, validity, and reliability. However, only a few have explained them together comprehensively which is conceivable to Ph.D. scholars. In this article, we have attempted to briefly explain various types of data collection instruments, and available techniques for checking the calibration, validity, and reliability of the data collection instrument.
Paper Type: Conceptual.
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