International Journal of Management, Technology and Social Sciences (IJMTS) https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts <p><strong>International Journal of Management, Technology, and Social Sciences (IJMTS) (ISSN - 2581-6012)</strong> is an online, not-for-profit, university sponsored free publication, blind peer-reviewed, open-access, bi-annual but continuous weekly uploading of accepted papers, plagiarism free, refereed research journal published by Srinivas Publication, Srinivas University, India. IJMTS offers free publication opportunity to its authors, allows to keep Copyright of the scholarly paper with the authors. It provides a global author-centric publishing platform for Professors, Research scholars, academicians, professionals, and students engaged in Research. The main aim of IJMTS is to become the world’s leading Author-Centred fast publication journal that is preferred and trusted by the research community through publishing authentic, peer-reviewed, and scientifically developed research articles of international calibre. IJMTS publishes research papers in the field Management, Technology, Education, and Social Sciences. The Journal publishes scholarly articles in English. IJMTS accepts exceptional research contribution from the authors in the form of original papers, review papers, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, case studies, empirical research, and technical notes. All submissions are also checked for plagiarism. The length of the manuscript must be between five (5) to twenty (20) journal pages excluding references. The journal follows the <a href="https://publicationethics.org/">|C|O|P|E|</a> (Committee on Publication Ethics) guidance while accepting scholarly papers for publication.</p> Srinivas Publication, Mangalore, Karnataka, India-575001 en-US International Journal of Management, Technology and Social Sciences (IJMTS) 2581-6012 A Study on Transformation of Higher Education System: Present Scenario and Future Outlook https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/761 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>An analysis of Higher education in India gives insight into its present system, the transformation it has undergone and its future outlook. In this paper, we have made an honest attempt to understand the system, constitution, transformation, opportunities and challenges, and to offer necessary suggestions.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>It is a qualitative conceptual study, based on secondary data. Secondary data is collected from websites, research papers, journals, articles, various surveys &amp; Government reports. This study includes discussion with experts from the field of Higher education.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong>Based on detail analysis of the constitution, transformation, NEP 2020 for a futuristic outlook in Indian Higher Education, SWOT analysis and challenges.&nbsp; There is a crucial need to relook at the financial funds, access and equity. To boost higher education in India, it is necessary to adopt strategic approach for tackling the various challenges.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong>This paper analyses and interprets the transformation of Indian Higher Education system with reference to its constitutions, SWOT analysis and challenges. Based on the detail analysis new suggestions has been recommended.</p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> A study on transformation of Indian Higher Education system: Present Scenario and Future Outlook.</p> Hegde Lata Narayan Shailashri V. T. Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 6 2 1 11 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0149 Perception Based Study of Variation Order in Building Construction Projects https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/774 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>The main objective of this study is to identify the various origin and causes of variation orders. The study area is limited to Tribhuwan University premises, Kathmandu. The result of this study can be further used to analyze the impacts of those and also to develop prevention measures which further can be beneficial in upcoming projects.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> &nbsp;<em>Fifty respondents including client, consultant, and contractor and their representatives having experience above two years were questioned for the primary source of data collection. Research works, papers, publications, journals, online information, contract documents, letters, and documents were used for secondary data collection. For ranking the perception based relative importance index of respondents views of causes, five ranking Likert scale have been used.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> &nbsp;<em>Respondents have viewed the major cause of variations originated from the client in overall projects are change of plans, impediment in prompt decision making, financial difficulties, changes of scope and poor project objectives with RII 0.80, 0.72, 0.69, 0.64, and 0.63 respectively. Similarly, the causes originated from consultants are change of plans or scope, defects in the bill of quantities, change in design, defect in design, and lack of judgment and experience with RII 0.756, 0.736, 0.712, 0.668, and 0.656 respectively. Major causes having their origin from the contractor are found to be lack of specified and appropriate competent construction manager, lack of involvement in design, lack of judgement and experience, lack of strategic planning, and financial difficulties with RII 0.72, 0.70, 0.66, 0.66, and 0.59 respectively. Another main cause of weather conditions with RII 0.55 and the least is socio-cultural factors having RII 0.43.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> <em>It is action research to enhance the performance of Projects by managing Variations. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Analytical Policy Research</em></p> Anjay Kumar Mishra Neetu Korala Sujan Khadka Amit Dhungana Rajat Pokharel Shangrila Lama Niraj Adhikari Shubash Acharya Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-02 2021-08-02 6 2 12 27 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0150 Strategy for Prioritization of Storage Hydropower Projects - A Case from Nepal https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/801 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This research aims to analyze the Sensitivity for Prioritization of Storage Hydropower Projects of Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) has been used for analyzing the Technical, Financial, Policy, Environment factors Sensitivity with pairwise comparison in different multiple criteria. Additionally, the response from the client and expert opinion was conducted.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong>Technical on first (weightage of 34%), financial on the second (weightage of 25%), environmental on third (weightage of 16%), policy and political on fourth (weightage of 11%), uncertainties on fifth (weightage of 9%), and respondents on sixth (weightage of 5%) are the main the factors. The impact can be explained at 50 % change in weight of respondent Nalsaugad Storage Hydropower Project stands at first rank. If the weightage of respondents changes by 100% then Uttarganga Storage Hydropower Project stands at first rank with respect to respondent factor. The sensitivity analysis with respect to factors was done, which shows no significant difference in the ranking of projects at the base case and at the case of change in weight of factors.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> It is action research to assure factors weights</p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> Analytical Policy Research</p> Surendra Kaini Anjay Kumar Mishra Rajesh Sapkota Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 6 2 28 46 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0151 Disruptive Technologies for Efficient and Sustainable Smart Cities https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/804 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: <em>The most active and rapid development in today's world is happening in Smart cities. Smart Cities are changing very fast in every aspect, be it development, operations, and or maintenance points of view. Today's Smart Cities are aiming to be at an advanced stage of urbanization and fully exploiting digital infrastructure for rapid urban development. In order to make the cities better places to live and to offer more comfortable and enjoyable living for their residents, Smart Cities are using and employing various tools and technologies to make themselves smarter and more connected with their stakeholders using technology means. Industry 4.0, Digital Transformation, and various latest technologies such as 5G, Data Analytics, IoT, AI, and Machine Learning, Digital Twins, etc. are transforming and shaping up Smart Cities in never before style. In this paper, various such key technologies that are positively affecting Smart Cities are discussed at length. It is also highlighted in detail how these technologies are impacting Smart Cities development and operations. Finally, future research directions are also discussed in brief. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: <em>Extensive exploration of available literature with research papers, conference papers, white papers, online blogs, dedicated websites, etc. on the research area and interactions with field researchers, subject matter experts, industry professionals is carried out to collect, analyse and process the collected data to find out the facts. The resulted facts and findings about the latest technologies used in Smart Cities is presented in this research paper.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result</strong>: <em>After analysis of available literature and based on interactions with relevant stakeholders and based on own data analysis, it is identified that Smart City services are making use of various latest tools and technologies to solve their real-life challenges. Among vast list of technologies specifically IoT, Blockchain, Digital Twins, 5G, Contactless Technology, AI and ML are found the most significant and widely used technologies in Smart Cities development, operations, and maintenance activities.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong>: <em>It is found that not many research papers are available on analysis of future technologies used in Smart Cities. The data presented in this paper is genuine and original and completely based on systematic literature review, interactions with SME, Researchers and Industry experts and based on own data analysis which produced new findings.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type</strong>:&nbsp; <em>Technology oriented Research</em></p> Dipak S. Gade Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-23 2021-08-23 6 2 47 63 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0152 Are You Happy with The Way Your Body Looks in Midlife? https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/812 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: <em>The years between 40 to the early 60’s in the human life span is referred to as the Midlife period. It is also considered as an important period in one’s life, referred to as the transition period. By this age it is generally assumed that a person would have more free time in their hands, as they get settled/established in their career and with the children hitting their teens and no longer demanding a lion’s share of their spare time, one is free to socialise, introspect, explore new avenues etc.&nbsp;Traditionally it is believed that people are more fixated or obsessed with their outwardly appearance up until their 40, s and as they hit their midlife, they tend to become more relaxed on their outward appearance and physique. In the current scenario where people are locked up indoors due to the Covid19 pandemic. Working, Socialising, recreation is facilitated by some or the other social media platform. The issue here is that these platforms not only show us the other person, but you see yourself also on screen. Seeing themselves on screen is not something that the people in their midlife are used to. This over exposure of the unfiltered self</em><em>, </em><em>pitched against the others on screen make them conscious of their haves and have not’s. The massive boom of the beauty /fitness industry along with the new age/gen Selfie revolution has put a massive pressure on the human psyche to look perfect and flawless in every frame. People have become very aware of their body, body type, flaws and assets.</em>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong><em>&nbsp; This research was done to Understand the extent to which the people from a fitness group and who follow an exercise regime are conscious about the appearance of their specific body parts.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong><em> Quantitative analysis with pre-established tool of body comparison scale.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Results<em>:</em></strong><em> Results showed that contrary to the general understanding that people become relaxed towards their appearance during their midlife, both, males and females were bothered about their physical features and appearance. Both the genders were equally concerned about size, weight, waist, physique and overall shape. Males were more bothered about the muscular attributes while females were shown to be more conscious about non muscular physical attributes. Hence the results clearly indicated that due to social media influence, people in midlife are really conscious, comparative and critical about their physical attributes and body, irrespective of their gender.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong>: <em>The study points out</em> <em>at how comparative the social&nbsp;circles</em> <em>make us towards our own bodies.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type</strong>: <em>Quantitative Analysis</em></p> Smita B. Thomas Suphala Kotian Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-25 2021-08-25 6 2 64 74 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0153 Re-inventing Karna of the Mahabharata with a Renewed Perspective- A Review of Literature https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/817 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong><em>&nbsp;A casual look at the phenomena&nbsp;around us gives us a certain image, a certain perspective. When we have an insight into the same through a prism of investigation a new image, a new perspective emerges. The epic Mahabharata is so full of players who mesmerise the casual and serious readers alike. The plot is thick with kings, ministers, commanders, courtesans, mentors, soldiers, etc. Birth, lineage, warfare techniques have a role to play in deciding one's status in that setting. A character in Mahabharata that has been wronged vehemently from the social perspective and of relative deprivation is Karna. </em></p> <p><strong>Design / Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>&nbsp;The Review of Literature is carried out with the secondary data gathered from educational websites and written publications. The research will be conducted using Research Journals, Doctoral Theses, and websites. This qualitative research is carried out by examining and interpreting existing knowledge on the subject utilising the keywords “Adroitness, Deprivation, Karna, Kunti, Values” found in online articles, peer-reviewed journals, publications, and a range of related portals.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>Karna had asked his mother to officially identify him as her son even in his final moments. During his funeral, the Pandavas learned the heinous truth about their kinship. Krishna tells Kunti that Karna was a hero who died as a hero. Despite the fact that the world is full of greed, power, and betrayal, only Karna has chosen the path of righteousness. The only way to kill Karna was to take away all of his righteousness. Karna received legitimacy during his death, something he had desired his entire life. He'd finally earned his rightful place. &nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>&nbsp;This paper makes a sincere study of Karna a major character in The Mahabharata, the of whom is not available anywhere else in the world in any literature as Ramdhari Singh Dinakar opines. He exemplified the finest attributes of courage, honesty, friendship, benefaction, austerity, oblation, and emancipation of the oppressed. When pushed to their limits, all of these characteristics combined and manifested in Karna. Karna cultivated all his attributes by acquiring balanced knowledge in meditation, weaponry, and scriptures. Karna sprouted in secret, like a forest flower.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Exploratory research paper.</em></p> Bharathi S. Rai Manjula K. T. Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-27 2021-08-27 6 2 75 87 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0154 An Analysis of Indian Entertainment Industry – Past, Present, and Future https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/852 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The entertainment industry (casually known as Show Business) is included in the tertiary sector of the economy and embraces fields so theater, films, fine arts, dance, music, television, radio, media, sports, cultural events, etc. This industry is continuously evolving with innovations and ideas for the industry. It is developing dynamically in terms of revenue and volumes employing creative and technical people. It witnessed explosive growth during post liberalization that led to internationalization and expansion of the market. This study explores the evolution, growth, threats, challenges, future trends, and impact of FDI on the Indian entertainment industry. This study uncovers the impact of internationalization and its potential for providing employment.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study is based on secondary data including Google, online journals, reports, and news articles.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Initially, the entertainment started with storytelling, a way to pass on their culture, traditions, values, and history. The introduction of television brought a big change in entertainment and now online entertainment is on-trend and this way the method of delivering entertainment has expanded progressively. The Indian government has increased the percent of FDI’s and many international collaborations have helped the Indian entertainment industry to grow nationally and internationally There is a lot of employment opportunity in the entertainment industry from the people who work on screen and behind the screen. But due to the pandemic, few classes of workers in the industry are suffering but others are surviving in the online platforms. Television has retained its position as the largest entertainment segment, while digital media overtook the print entertainment sector, and online gaming overtook a filmed entertainment segment. In the future, the online form of entertainment will overpower and the OTT platform will boom.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications: </strong>Very few sources are available for references, few concepts are not highlighted and most of the information is outdated hence the collection of relevant information was a challenge.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>This paper brings to focus the imperative of due consideration by the Government and other regulating bodies to adopt some incentive measures to boost the Indian entertainment industry, being a sunrise industry, and also try to work on the personal and financial safety and stability of all the stakeholders of the entertainment industry, especially during abnormalities like the present pandemic-.</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>This industry analysis is an exploratory study.</p> Velita Sibon Lobo K. Shivshankar Bhat Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 6 2 88 99 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0155 Role of NGOs in Implementation of CSR Activities in India https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/856 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong><em> Corporate social responsibility is becoming a necessary component of doing business. India is the first country to establish a minimum wage for CSR initiatives aimed at improving the future. The Indian government has implemented new CSR criteria that require businesses to invest 2% of their net profit in such projects. CSR enables businesses to contribute to the betterment of society, the environment, and nature to achieve this goal. NGO's play an important role because they manage various financial assistance programs and assist businesses in achieving various goals. This study is mainly focused to know the contribution of CSR made the business organization toward&nbsp;inclusive growth and the reasons beyond the implementation on CSR by business organization.</em></p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> <em>Business organisations' contributions to inclusive growth through corporate social responsibility are examined in this study, as are the reasons for CSR's adoption by businesses. A case study is used to examine the role of non-profit organisations in the implementation of CSR activities. This study focuses on the role of non-governmental organisations in implementing CSR activities that benefit society by creating a systematic framework.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong><em>The paper finds that majority of the organizations are conscious of the concept of Corporate Responsibility, which means most of the organizations they are responsible for society.</em></p> <p><strong>Practical Implications: </strong><em>This study implies that CSR is based on the profit and need of society.&nbsp;Building strong public-private partnerships and working closely with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as implementation partners is accomplished through company’s collaborative methods by organizations and various NGOs at the ground level are needed to develop which is beyond micro-credit to increase women's endowments and improve their trade outcomes vis-à-vis the family markets state and community.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong><em> These findings have been made based on available secondary data and have identified the role played by non-governmental organisations in the implementation of CSR activities, as well as how their priorities and focus shifted towards developing society. This paper also outlines the evolution and advancements of CSR activities </em></p> <p><strong><em>Paper Type:</em></strong><em> Conceptual Research.</em></p> Bindhu D. Niyaz Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-20 2021-09-20 6 2 100 107 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0156 Awareness and Utilization on Cooperative Banking Services and Schemes in Rural Area https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/863 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>The purpose of this paper is to study the awareness level and utilization of various cooperative banking services in rural area especially Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka.&nbsp; In India, most of the states are agriculture dominated, especially in rural area, cooperative banks play a key role in bolstering the common individual and financing his self -employment/business and personal needs. The awareness and effective utilization of various rural banking services will improve the financial inclusion statistics of the country. To assess the awareness level, 27 services and schemes offered by the cooperative society are taken and classified into different factors.&nbsp; The awareness levels of rural Muslims are compared with different demographical profile to know the difference. </em></p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong><em>Data was collected through a structured questionnaire and distributed among rural Muslims cooperative bank account holders. The study is descriptive in nature and data was collected from 398 rural Muslims of five taluks of Dakshina Kannada district. To draw meaningful inferences, scales for reliability, normality assumption, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyze, compare and interpret the data. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> <em>The results indicate that there are no significant differences among the economic status, income and sub-caste regarding awareness of cooperative banking services and schemes. However, there is a significant difference among the age, residence and occupation regarding awareness of cooperative banking services and schemes.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality: </strong><em>It may help the service provider to implement services and schemes according to the needs and profile of the rural households in the rural area, in order to have effective utilization of services and to raise the standard of living.</em></p> <p><strong>Practical Implication:</strong> <em>The findings of the study will help the various stakeholders to overcome the problem of financial inclusion especially in rural areas and help to provide need-based financial service to the rural households in the country.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Analytical Research</em></p> Niyaz Abbokar Siddiq Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 6 2 108 120 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0157 A Study on Employee Retention as a Tool for Improving Organizational Effectiveness https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/884 <p><strong>Background/Purpose:</strong><em> Human sources are those who make the group of workers of a company. It's also recognized via manpower, skills, labour, employees etc. Human Resource department of a business enterprise performs human useful resource control.&nbsp; It entails various elements of the employment consisting of compliance with labour regulation and employment standards, management of worker benefits, and various other sports related to recruitment and choice of the employee.&nbsp; Worker retention is regarding the efforts with the aid of which employers try and retain the personnel in their team of workers. Retention turns into the strategies in place of the final results. Preserving the worker for long duration of time is known as retention. Retention strategies of the organization need to have the capacity to attract and hold their staff. Organizational effectiveness refers to a company's ability to achieve the goals it sets out to achieve.&nbsp; It's far the performance of the organization, group or an organization to fulfill its goal. Six Sigma is a methodology that makes a specialty of improving the overall efficiency of a business process. </em></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong><em>This work is carried out at Dinesh Foods, Kannur. Dinesh foods are a subsidiary unit of Kerala Dinesh Beedi Workers Co-op Society. The objective of this study is to observe and to recognize how worker retention facilitates in growing the organizational effectiveness of Dinesh Foods. It additionally assists to investigate diverse retention techniques followed and also the employee turnover within the unit.&nbsp; This work investigates the worker retention is a device for increasing the organizational effectiveness.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach<em>:</em></strong><em> For the purpose of study the data was collected through primary and secondary source.&nbsp; Questionnaire was distributed among the workers for collecting necessary data for the study, financial statement of the company to study about the financial stability of the organisation and annual report of the company.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Results: </strong><em>This research is done to find out whether the employee retention in the organisation helps in improving the organisational effectiveness. Varies conditions applied for the hypothesis and it can be proved that the employee retention is a tool for increasing the organisational effectiveness.&nbsp; Based on the analysis, findings and suggestions Dinesh Foods, Kannur can give more concentration towards retaining the employees in the organisation as it is important in any organization.</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong><em> This study focusses on whether employee retention is a tool for improving the organisational effectiveness. It is found that the employee retention is a tool for improving organisational effectiveness and employee retention helps in increasing the productivity.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong><em> Case study-based Research Analysis</em></p> Nethravathi P. S. Aithal P. S. Gayathri Babu J. Sonia Soans Honey Jayaraj Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 6 2 121 132 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0161 An Exploration of Karna’s Last Days through the Prism of Aristotle's Hamartia https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/885 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>The Mahabharata by Vyasa and the Iliad by Homer both have a surfeit of Heroes. The two great heroes are Karna from the Mahabharata and Achilles from the Iliad. They have a few things in common as their lives are heavily influenced by fate. As fate is inescapable, they confronted their death head-on. The figures of Karna and Achilles stand out dramatically in both Indian and Greek mythology respectively casting everyone else in the gloom, thus making both the masterpieces incomplete without these heroes. Though these spartan heroes were invincible due to their origin, they lay their lives in Kurukshetra and Trojan wars respectively. They decided to be glorious despite knowing the fact that they would die in the battle. Few characters in the ancient literature have been drawn with such perfect skill and insight into human nature as Maharathi Karna, a character who has never been truly understood, has been continually misinterpreted despite the completeness, candor, and clarity of the amazing Epic in providing us with specifics of his existence. The most important aspect of his life narrative which is often overlooked or glossed over by modern writers which has far-reaching implications is that Karna was born out of wedlock and so cast away at birth. His adroitness and the values he lived and loved for standing him in good stead for a hero. </em></p> <p><strong>Design / Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>The paper is prepared by accumulating secondary data from educational websites and written articles. The study shall be carried </em><em>out with the use of Research Journals, Scholarly Books, Doctoral Theses, and websites. This qualitative research is carried out by studying and interpreting the existing knowledge on the subject using the keywords “Karna”, “Epic”, “Tragic flaw”, “Battle”, “Loyalty” which are accessible in online articles, peer-reviewed journals, publications and a variety of related portals.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> <em>Karna's entire life was spent trying to figure out who he </em><em>was and to find an answer to the same. Karna's life also shows us how life is full of unrelenting choices; the options being limited. Friendship with someone who has aided at times of need and to whom one has sworn lifelong loyalty and friendship is admirable, but there must be a fine line drawn between this duty and other, more important responsibilities. Karna is, without a doubt, a figure who, in Aristotelian terminology, possesses the classical features of a tragic hero, as well as a figure with a great deal of literary potential.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>This paper attempts to make a sincere study of Karna as a tragic hero under classical examples of Aristotle's ‘Hamartia’ where a hero wants to ‘Triumph’ but while doing so he commits an intentional error and ends up achieving exactly the opposite with disastrous results. The story of the life of Karna is pre-eminently great nevertheless fate and destiny played an unwarranted and calamitous game facilitating the reader of the Epic to identify himself or herself with the Tragic Hero.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Exploratory research paper.</em></p> Bharathi S. Rai Manjula K. T. Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 6 2 133 146 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0159 Web of Human Relationships in Select Novels of J.M. Coetzee: A Literature Review https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/893 <p><strong>Purpose<em>: </em></strong><em>The depiction of the problems of conflicts and contradictions and graphical portrayal of the web of human relationship among people of varied races in South African society by Coetzee has been identified as the focus of the study. The British rule had an impact on South Africa that comprised the native South Africans or black race, Afrikaners or the white South Africans and the white people of colonial authority. The research has reviewed related research articles, books and research theses done on the novels of J.M. Coetzee to consolidate the data on the portrayal of the web of human relationship among people of varied races in South Africa. A close reading of select novels of Coetzee also reveals the effects of racism and colonial oppression. More importantly, his writings transcend political, geographical and social boundaries to achieve universal significance. The study of related literature in the works of Coetzee further discloses his ability not only to delineate local situations and characters but to infuse them with universal ideology and characteristics of his mission as well. However, the study to achieve research focus has been confined to the web of human relationships. His use of the country's apartheid system and its post-apartheid transition to represent the bareness and desolation of the human state has also been brought under the discussion. Thus, the present study intends to bring out social relationship existing amidst the native South Africans, the Afrikaners or the white South Africans and the people from white authority in apartheid society of South Africa, with specific reference to select novels. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>The researcher has reviewed almost fifty research articles, fifteen books and fifteen research theses for Master Degree, Master of Philosophy and Doctorate in Philosophy on the novels of Coetzee. Hard copies of some of the books were accessed in the St. Aloysius College library, Mangalore and EFLU library, Hyderabad. The online search was made to collect the database through Google scholar. The studies reviewed are peer reviewed journals, original research papers, National and International Publications. The researcher has referred and followed APA Manuel for the analyses of the research work.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>After reviewing a greater number of articles, books and theses it has been found that the multiple interpretations which were given to Coetzee’s novels help to emerge his mission which is more quizzical, more explorative. On reading his novels, one may find out that Coetzee does not stop with describing and delineating</em> <em>local situations and characters, but infuses them with universal ideology and characteristics of his mission.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>It’s proven that the web of social relationship and social reality are not a fixed presence; it varies from person to person, place to place, culture to culture, and country to country in any moment or situation. Genuine social and human relationship developed and sustained with the true nobleness of humanity is the means to thwart the ills and troubles of the societal conflicts and contradictions. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type</strong><em>: Analytical research based on review of literature.</em></p> Severine Pinto A. Lourdusamy Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-07 2021-10-07 6 2 147 155 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0160 The Shackles of The Mirror? - A Case Study on Body Dysmorphic Disorder https://srinivaspublication.com/journal/index.php/ijmts/article/view/896 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>This case study was done to do a detailed study on the recent trends with photographs and how it affects the body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] across all genders and age groups. The intention was to understand how is body dysmorphic disorder affects persons eating habits, social interaction, and body image. In this article, various research studies and scholarly articles were studied to understand in detail regarding Body dysmorphic disorder. The emphasis was given on age, gender, social media networking site users, etc. It was also intended to study how the media influences people towards a certain skin color and body type.&nbsp;&nbsp; It was found not a single study was done in India though there are articles by Indian authors on body shaming, body image, and how media is obsessed with unrealistic beauty standards which indirectly creates body image concerns in people. This case study justifies the need for studies to be done in India to identify Body dysmorphic disorder using various scales like Body image concern inventory, etc. </em></p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong><em> This case study was done to understand the studies done on body dysmorphic disorder around the world. To understand the pattern, occurrence ratio between youngsters and elderly and social media users and non-users.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong><em>: Detailed Review of literature was done on various scholarly articles provided over medical, psychology, and journal websites.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Results</strong><em>: Most of the studies were done in European countries and very few in Asia. The studies revealed that women are more affected by BDD than men. People active on social networking sites, following celebrities, and media were more discontent with their body parts or in general. Studies also show that the younger population is more affected by body dysmorphic disorder.&nbsp; It was also noted that there was no direct study done in India for identifying body dysmorphic disorder. </em></p> <p><strong>Type of Paper:</strong><em> Research Case Study.</em></p> Smita B. Thomas Suphala Kotian Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 6 2 156 161 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0163