International Journal of Management, Technology and Social Sciences (IJMTS) <p><strong>International Journal of Management, Technology, and Social Sciences (IJMTS) (ISSN - 2581-6012)</strong> is an online, not-for-profit, university sponsored free publication, blind peer-reviewed, open-access, bi-annual but continuous weekly uploading of accepted papers, plagiarism free, refereed research journal published by Srinivas Publication, Srinivas University, India. IJMTS offers free publication opportunity to its authors, allows to keep Copyright of the scholarly paper with the authors. It provides a global author-centric publishing platform for Professors, Research scholars, academicians, professionals, and students engaged in Research. The main aim of IJMTS is to become the world’s leading Author-Centred fast publication journal that is preferred and trusted by the research community through publishing authentic, peer-reviewed, and scientifically developed research articles of international calibre. IJMTS publishes research papers in the field Management, Technology, Education, and Social Sciences. The Journal publishes scholarly articles in English. IJMTS accepts exceptional research contribution from the authors in the form of original papers, review papers, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, case studies, empirical research, and technical notes. All submissions are also checked for plagiarism. The length of the manuscript must be between five (5) to twenty (20) journal pages excluding references. The journal follows the <a href="">|C|O|P|E|</a> (Committee on Publication Ethics) guidance while accepting scholarly papers for publication.</p> Srinivas Publication, Mangalore, Karnataka, India-575001 en-US International Journal of Management, Technology and Social Sciences (IJMTS) 2581-6012 A Descriptive Analysis on Effect of Corporate Governance on Investor’s Decision <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>The article studies the impact of internal factors and external factors influencing an investor’s investment decision.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology: </strong><em>The information for the study was obtained from secondary sources like journal papers, magazines and books.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> <em>Human psychology has an internal role in investing choice, whereas corporate governance is an external influence. Corporate governance plays a major role in the investment decision-making process by revealing all elements of business information, but investors understand the information according to their own assessments and assumptions based on their psychology. As a result, a firm’s transparency hardly impacts in investment decisions, and it only works to a limited extent; the rest of the investment selection process is dominated by human behaviour. However, the firm is transparent, there is no guarantee that the investor will always act rationally when making a choice for investment.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> <em>Every investor should make rational decisions about their investments. Therefore, it is an investor’s responsibility to follow the information provided by the firm, although some investors fail to do so. As a result of investor psychology, investors’ investment decisions are beyond the reach of business transparency. The study implies that a behavioural survey will be useful in determining the factor influencing investors’ investing decisions. </em></p> <p><strong>Type of Paper: </strong><em>Conceptual Paper</em></p> <p><em>PDF Link: </em><a href=""></a></p> Dsouza Prima Frederick Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-17 2022-01-17 7 1 1 10 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0173 Redefining Nationhood and Nationality through Historiographic Metafiction in the Shadow Lines <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>Postmodernism&nbsp;is a general movement that developed in the late 20th century across <a href="">the arts</a>, philosophy, art, architecture, and criticism, marking a disappearance from&nbsp;<a href="">modernism</a>. The term has been more often used to describe&nbsp;<a href="">a historical age which followed after modernity</a>. Postmodernism is a period of uprising which refers to ups and downs in each walk of life and the different disciplines of knowledge be it literary work, philosophy, or science. Postmodern literature revokes some modern literary methods by transforming them.&nbsp;Historiographic Metafiction is a contradictory term that consists of two opposite categories such as history and metafiction. It is having dual representations because such writings reflect the reality as well as fictional position. An attempt is made by the Post-colonial Indian English writers to liberate Indian English literature from the foreign bondage. Historical events such as agitations, migration, movements, refugees, colonial hegemony; social-economic and cultural problems like encounter of the east-west, caste, and class became the concerns of the writers.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong><em> This paper is prepared by making a study of Primary source and accumulating </em><em>secondary data from educational websites and written publications. This qualitative research is carried out by studying and interpreting the existing knowledge on the subject. The paper tries to analyze the historiographic metafictional features as depicted in The Shadow Lines by Amitav Ghosh. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong><em> After reviewing many articles, books and thesis it has been found that the paper aims to study Amitav Ghosh's notions like ‟ Nationhood and National distinctiveness in "The Shadow Lines” as a reminiscence novel, highlights a few historical happenings like the Second World War, the Swadeshi movement, and the Partition of India in 1947 and communal uprisings in Bangladesh and India. The ardent nationalism upheld by the protagonist that is the narrator’s grandmother is questioned and re-analysed. Ghosh searches for appropriateness of traditional identity such as nation and nationalism. </em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> <em>This paper makes a study of the major character Thamma with special reference to her concerns of Nationhood and Nationality.&nbsp; The identity of Thamma in the novel is given prominence being a woman she stands for her thoughts and identifies her as an individual who faced tragedy but still who had the courage to raise her voice till the end.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Analytical Research paper.</em></p> Nayana K Manjula K. T. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-17 2022-01-17 7 1 11 20 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0174 Risk Management Practice Adopted in Road Construction Project <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Zero risk construction is only a dream not reality as there is nothing certainity in the real world and scientists are only capable of coverting the same into risk with high level data science. The practice of risk management is an attempt to highlight risk elements with a case of urban road construction in Sindhupalchowk district, Province 3, Nepal.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>The 5-point Likert scale questionnaire survey was done to collect the primary data. Risk Management Practice is documented based on survey response in percentage through charts and graphs. Field visit were done for visual assessment of the construction procedure along with key informant interview and Secondary data of Detail Project Reports, Design and Drawings were effectively analyzed. Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability and triangulations were done for validity.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>The results from this research indicates that contractor’s organization are averagely aware with a mean score of 3.30 about Risk Management Practice and averagely practicing risk management formally with mean score of 2.83. They are averagely analyzing risk management techniques with mean score of 3.07. Mean score is slightly higher based on client’s perspective with score for awareness being 3.93 and score for risk management being practiced formally is 3.13. Risk analysis score based on client’s management is 3.40. Mostly adopted technique of risk identification is monitoring and evaluation report of similar past projects and direct judgment is widely used technique for risk assessment of road construction projects at Sindhupalchowk district based on both client’s and contractor’s perspective. Risk response strategy based on contractor’s perspective is monitoring the risk and preparing contingency plan whereas that for client is transfer of risk.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>It is action research which is significant for professional to understand the practices of risk management being adopted by Nepalese Contractors in hilly region of Nepal. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Ex-Post Facto Research</em></p> Hemant Gain A. K. Mishra Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 7 1 21 36 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0175 A Systematic Review on Issues and Challenges Associated with Work Engagement of Teachers <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>As education sector becomes more and more quality conscious, the nature of work involved in teaching profession undergoes dramatic changes. The various management concepts such as creativity, innovation, continuous improvement and change management become a common jargon for teachers in the current scenario. All these factors impose greater pressure and uncertainty on teachers. In the midst of all these challenges, there are multiple parameters to evaluate the performance of teachers. This sudden shift in the profession really resulted in teachers experiencing a stressful environment. The predicament of whether to focus more on traditional teaching methodology or student centric quality parameters exerts pressure on them. The New Education Policy (NEP 2020) will of course demand more involvement from teachers. In this juncture, this study proposes to conduct an analysis of various issues and challenges related to work engagement of teachers.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>Literature review is conducted to analyse the concept of work engagement, work engagement of teachers and the factors influencing work engagement of teachers.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>Quality consciousness, innovation driven environment and implementation of National Education Policy, 2020 makes it important to be concerned about the work engagement of teachers. The transition towards a student centric curriculum is challenging and inevitable. In this context, work engagement of teachers should be given utmost importance.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>The antecedents and consequences of work engagement in the volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous environment is evaluated.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Conceptual Research</em>.</p> Michael Ligory Santmajor Carmelita Goveas Justine P. James Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-25 2022-01-25 7 1 37 58 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0176 Digital Signature with RSA Public Key Cryptography for Data Integrity in SOSE-Based E-Government Systems <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>SOSE is a novel software paradigm suitable for development of flexible, loose-coupled and end-to-end E-government system. However, the use of this innovation for E-government system is dwindled by security challenge. Apparently, the TLS (transport layer security) solution traditionally applied to protect SOSE-based E-government systems is inadequate since it can only secure point-to-point channels of communicating. Whereas, an end-to-end security protection is necessary to adequately protect SOSE-based applications.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: <em>Consequently, this paper proposed use of Digital Signature by RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) public key cryptographic algorithm at the message level to achieve data integrity in SOSE-based E-government system. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>The SOAP message content shows adequate formulation of digital signature with appropriate indicators of RSA public key to ensure data integrity. The SOAP message shows that SignedInfo, Signature Value and KeyInfo were formulated correctly. The SignedInfo contains Canonicalization Method, Signature Method and Reference subelements. Also, SignatureValue element has encrypted digest and the KeyInfo element has security token reference. </em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>This security solution integrates many technologies including OASIS’s web service security standard and W3C’s (World Wide Web Consortium) XML digital signature into SOAP envelope to ensure data integrity for E-government system at the message level. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Applied Research. </em></p> Musa Midila Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-30 2022-01-30 7 1 59 70 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0177 A Relative Study of Average Investment Returns between Manufacturing Sector and Service Sector of CPSEs in India <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>In India, CPSEs were established to achieve socio-economic objectives of the nation. Both manufacturing sector and service sector occupies an important position in the development process of an economy. In this context, a comparative study is performed between manufacturing sector and service sector of Indian CPSEs from 2010-11 to 2019-20.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>Based on resultant data, investment ratios are employed to compute investment returns of the CPSEs. Moreover Fishers ‘t’ test judge the differences (if any) in investment returns between manufacturing sector and service sector. In addition, linear regression equations are employed to inspect the impact of sector-wise investment returns on the aggregate investment returns.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>Based on average investment returns, no noteworthy difference is observed between manufacturing sector and service sector in terms of ROCE and ROE. However, there exists important distinction among the same for ROA which implies that manufacturing sector has better utilization of their total assets in generating returns than that of the service sector. ROCE of the manufacturing sector contributes positively to the overall profitability of the CPSEs, while ROCE of the service sector contributes negatively to the overall profitability of the CPSEs. It further observed that the rate of negative influence by the service sector is more than that of positive influence by the manufacturing sector, thereby reducing the overall profitability of the CPSEs at aggregate level.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value<em>: </em></strong><em>To identify the important sector in the liberal economic environment, the present study compares average investment returns between manufacturing sector and service sector of the CPSEs in India through ROA, ROCE, and ROE. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Empirical Research.</em></p> Sudipta Ghosh Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-04 2022-02-04 7 1 71 78 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0178 Significance of New Education Policy (NEP) 2020 for Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Program <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>Adult Education Program is an imperative platform to spread literacy, raising awareness, functional amenabilities and sensitize each member of the community irrespective of age, region and religion. National Adult Education Program (NAEP) was initiated on 2<sup>nd</sup> October, 1978 to spread literacy among community belonging to the age groups 15-35 years. However, with emergence of various implementing challenges and demands of the community, Adult Education was transfigured to Lifelong learning to engulf people of all age groups and all regions with special emphasis on socially and economically deprived sections of the community. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach:</strong><em> Present review highlights the role of New Education Policy (NEP) 2020 in proliferating adult education and lifelong learning programs in the current digital world. The emergence of Digital India and Atma Nirbhar Bharat makes it indispensable for each member of the community to be well aware of the basic skills that are imperative to be an independent and useful member of the society. To address the unforeseen challenges observed in India’s education landscape after COVID-19 pandemic scenario, it become inevitable to sensitize each member of the community with updated knowledge and skills.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:&nbsp; </strong><em>As explained by Maclver who was a member of American Sociological Society, has explained the concept of society as a web of social relations. Current scenario has made it imperative to realize the significance of Adult education and lifelong learning. The author suggested that Adult Education and Lifelong Learning is a web of Skill Development Program. In current digital India and Atma Nirbhar Bharat, where technology advancements has emerged on a significant height, Adult Education and Life Long Learning plays a vital role in making the society economically independent. </em></p> <p><strong>Originality/New knowledge:&nbsp; </strong><em>The novelty in current review and NEP 2020 lies in transition from National Education Policy 1986 aiming at spreading functional literacy among community to NEP 2020 aiming at enhancing skill development and dissemination of skill development programs among community to make them economically independent and a useful member in the society.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper type:</strong><em> Review Article</em></p> Renu Gandhi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-20 2022-02-20 7 1 79 95 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0179 Effectiveness of Arbitration in Construction Projects <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>It is impossible to specify remedies against every possible situation that may be encountered in construction projects. Any dispute can be settled timely either by negotiation, mediation, adjudication, arbitration, or litigation. This study was based on the context of Road construction contracts selected from the Dispute Resolution Unit of the Department of Roads (DoR, Nepal. The emphasis of this particular research work was to evaluate the effectiveness of arbitration.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> <em>The sixteen case studies were the major basis as a quantitative study for the assessment of the effectiveness of dispute adjudication by assessing the success rate of arbitration. Also, the familiarities of the parties about the provision and procedure of arbitration and its spirit/strength to resolve the disputes and responses of parties regarding the arbitration award were assessed based on the qualitative study. The content analysis in terms of percentage was the main tool for data analysis.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> <em>The arbitration award was not accepted in about 78.57% of disputed issues of these sixteen cases and referred to litigation, 42.86% issues were referred by the Employers, 25.00% issues were referred by the Contractors and 3.57% issues were referred by both the Employers and the Contractors. 100% of Employers and 100% of Contractors agreed that they know the procedure and provision of arbitration for the resolution of disputes. The majority of the Employers did not accept the arbitration award and referred to the cases to litigation while mostly were accepted by the Contractors except in a few cases. The majority of the Employers had the perception that the arbitration award was favorable to the contractors while most of the Contractors argued that the decisions were fair to both parties. The majority of the Employers said that it is comfortable to accept the litigation award concerning the arbitration award. It is a prompt, cost-effective, efficient, and easy way of resolving construction disputes. The rejection of the arbitration award has negative consequences for the efficiency of public spending and which is associated with the extensive delay in the project completion and the delay is associated with a cost overrun. While acceptance of arbitration award is associated with timely delivery of the project. The enforcement of arbitration awards is critical to the success of arbitration. In those countries where the arbitration is backed up by statute by acts and enforceable by law, it is found to be more successful and effective.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong><em> This study helps the DoR, Contractors, and other agencies such as the Public Procurement Monitoring Office (PPMO), Nepal council of Arbitration (NEPCA), and different Auditors and arbitrators of Nepal as it gives the perception of the contracting parties towards the arbitration process to familiarize the spirit of arbitration in the Nepalese construction industry.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Policy Research </em></p> A. K. Mishra Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-24 2022-02-24 7 1 96 111 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0180 Re -Negotiating the Trauma Theory in Select Partition Novels <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>This paper analyses the traumatic aspects prevalent in select Partition novels in Indian English literature. An inquisition of how these writers delineate the traumatic condition of the women characters in their partition narratives and the manner in which they interweave memories, pangs, sufferings, thoughts, riots and experiences with their past and the sense of trauma experienced by them. This study will be examined in detail on the effects of disaster or catastrophe on the inner psyche of characters and consciousness that dismantles the identity of an individual.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong><em> It will be a qualitative analysis including close reading, interpreting, comparing, and contrasting the primary sources chosen for the study. Critical essays on trauma theory and partition novels and books on partition narratives and trauma theory will also be incorporated to conduct the research.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Results:</strong><em> The outcome of the partition of the Indian subcontinent will ever be an issue of national prominence. The Partition event has enhanced many problems and inquiries about citizenship, national identity and traumatic experiences of the people. However, it is often examined, it still postulates from us an upholding pursuit for many essential answers.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> The literature<em> of partition sheds light on the then subsisting doctrines and its shift due to partition, which renders in new discernment about the social, historical and psychological experiences during that time. Partition induced a great agitation in history that interwoven with the miseries and trauma. These novels investigate how people outlived the holocaust, how they survived grappled with the trauma and renew their lives. These writers have perceived the pathos of people and the human agonies that preceded and accompanied partition. These novels demonstrate the impressions of abstruse nostalgia of the survived and deposed and intense pain of missing their motherland forever.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong><em> Analytical research study.</em></p> <p><em>Crossref DOI: <a href=""></a></em></p> <p> </p> B. G. Uma Maheswary A. Lourdusamy Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-24 2022-02-24 7 1 112 126 Accessing the Compliance Standards of Selected Projects of Thabang Rural Municipality, Nepal <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>A project is assumed to be sold before construction based on its accepted quality standards conformed through specification. Standards and specifications are used as benchmarks, and compliance checks are used to ensure that they are met. Accessing standard compliance based on chosen case projects is an attempt to learn about the status of Thabang Rural Municipality construction projects. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> <em>The compliance status of RCC and masonry building and the motorable road was checked by field observation with help of a checklist and their result are shown through bar graphs. For water supply projects water demand compliance was checked by field observation and water tariff calculation was done based on the possible yearly expenses of water supply management along with effective analysis of Detail Project Reports, Design, and Drawings.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> <em>Compliance status 20 RCC and 12 masonry building shows major non-compliance in the spacing of stirrups, lap length in column and beam, chair bars of the slab, provision of the crossing of reinforcement in the staircase. In masonry building, major non-compliance was observed in band/through stone, vertical bars at corners, and corner stretching by dowel bars. Roadway width was checked in two selected road projects and Tutu Praja Bhitrivan motorable road found non-compliance in the major portion of the road. Water demand compliance, water tariff calculations were done in Yebang Chabang Water Supply project.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong><em> This study helps policymakers and local level government to assure construction with compliance of standards. It makes it easier for policymakers to incorporate the development needs without compromising quality through regulatory provision.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Action and Policy Research</em></p> <p><em>Crossref DOI: <a href=""></a></em></p> Mina Yogi A. K. Mishra Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-25 2022-02-25 7 1 127 140 A Systematic Review and Research Agenda on Corporate Expectations from Management Graduates <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Today corporate networks are featured on a global scale. To delineate global standard corporate houses are striving hard to have high potential human resources which can create a competitive edge and economic surplus for them. The paper intends to compare the current status with the optimum status of research, thereby causing the research gap on meeting corporate expectations by management graduates. And also developing research agendas in connection with tapering the gap.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>The review paper is equipped with secondary data by focusing on the qualitative approach of the underlying problem statement. The data is collected from different scholarly articles, websites, research reports, surveys. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Results: </strong><em>The review section of the paper has explored the current status of research being done on meeting corporate expectations by management graduates. The optimum status emerged so urges the need of filling the research gap by carrying out mega-empirical research on the industry-institute interface to propose the key aspects in meeting the corporate expectations from management graduates. Various research agendas are developed and SWOC analysis is made to get the outlook of the proposed research.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>The paper identifies and proposes new areas of research to be carried out under empirical mode. Most of the research on the topic/area till today is descriptive rather than empirical. Based on the research gap, a research proposal is endorsed for further study.</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Review based research agenda</p> Vishwanath S. Naik Robin Shinde Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 7 1 141 162 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0183 The Evolution of the Female from Suppression to Supremacy in the Select Novels of Postmodern Retellings of the Epic- A Review of Literature <p><strong>Purpose</strong>:<em> Man, in contrast to other creatures, is concerned with spiritual issues such as cognitive, social, artistic, and political concerns. A deep relationship has existed between faith and humanity since the dawn of time, if not before. The various religious and cultural beliefs are reflected in myths. As a result, the history of civilizations is primarily linked to and identified with mythology and religion. With the guidance of mythology and culture, people can better understand their world and the meaning of life. Thousands of years had passed since the epic narratives were penned. However, the astonishing stories continue to uncover conspicuousness in every genre of art and continue to engulf and overwhelm us even today. Epic narratives are still loved not only for their poetic grandeur but also for the highest philosophical principles they contain, which educate us about the art of living. As a result, the Mahabharata is one of the most important writings in Indian culture, and its stories, which practically everyone has grown up hearing, are still relevant today. It is a true embodiment of a useful scripture that offers the modern man with a traditional, moral, and liturgical grounding even in the contemporary society. It is not just a story of morality to be narrated from the generations, but an unending source of study. Plenty of critics have studied the text from many perspectives, still much remains to be discovered and researched. The study intends to read four new retellings of the Mahabharata novels and look afresh into the four powerful female characters, namely, Sathyavati, Gandhari, Kunti, and Draupadi. The study discovers the quest for self-crisis of the four prominent female characters by applying feministic study, power politics, and gender views. The study mainly focuses on the comparison and contrast between the concept of western and Indian feminism.</em></p> <p><strong>Methodology/Approach</strong>:<em> The Literature Review is carried out by the information collected from different sources like educational websites, peer-reviewed journals, and online sources. The proposed research will be carried out relying on the data collected through research journals, doctoral thesis, scholarly articles, and websites. This qualitative approach is conducted mainly based on collecting, examining, and interpreting existing knowledge on the selected topic by focusing on the keywords "Feminism, Prominence, Relevance, Retelling, Self-Crisis, and Western". The methodology of the study is the textual analysis and comparative method. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result</strong>: <em>Vast reading of mythology will enhance the further areas of study. The gap between western feminism and Indian feminism helps to identify the discrimination of women in a clear way. The detailed study of the construction of gender views over the years makes it insightful about the issue. Discover that there is a connection between feminist studies with other theoretical frameworks. Modern retellings of the epic novels widen the scope and understanding of the original work. The scope and relevance of feminism in India are become more clear by comparing and contrasting the Indian and western concepts of feminism.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong><em>Exploratory research paper.</em></p> Parinitha B. A. Lourdusamy Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 7 1 163 183 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0184 A Systematic Review and Research Agenda of Portrayal of Cities in Select Indian English Fiction: Neti Neti: Not This, Not This by Anjum Hasan, The Lives of Others by Neel Mukherjee and Chennaivaasi by T. S. Tirumurti <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Cities have always found a place in novels, as a setting which wields influence. </em><em>Much great writing across cultures has been devoted to figuring out this intangible, yet resolute influence. The city is definitely an agent of transformation in many English works of fiction and this paper highlights the works of researchers who have examined the various ways in which cities are being foregrounded to offer them prominence in the narration and make them significant players in the overall presentation.&nbsp;The impact on the lives of the characters, plot and narration of the novels due to the spatial and cultural ethos of the city, the ways in which the city is portrayed and the reflection of this on the reader form the gist of the findings of the research</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> <em>The review of literature is carried out using i</em><em>nformation from various online open access sources such as peer-reviewed journals, doctoral theses, websites and a range of portals such as Google Scholar.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> <em>Optimizing the reading experience to help the reader move beyond a superficially touristy perspective of the space used as a setting and engage with the city’s complex social, political, historical, and cultural milieu requires a deeper study of the different ways in which the city can be foregrounded in novels. </em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> <em>This paper examines the phenomenon of the projection of space in novels and memoirs. A novel concept of the author as a literary cartographer, who makes the work of fiction come alive by not only describing the city as text but also going beyond to offer maps as an aid to the narration and in the process enriching the total reader experience, is presented. Different ways in which the city has been melded into the novel, touching upon its history, architecture and cultural aspects so as to be a significant part of the narrative and wield influence, have been identified.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type</strong>: <em>Content analysis and exploratory study.</em></p> Bharathi H. Prabhu Lourdusamy A. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 7 1 184 209 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0185 Feasibility Study on Integration of Green Technologies in Prospective Construction Projects: A Case of Vishakhapatnam <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>The construction sector is one of the important sectors that play an important role in country’s infrastructure development. The haphazard urbanization, industrialization and population explosion, have driven this sector vulnerable in terms of causing impacts on the environment. The construction process involves several stages and numerous stake holders, while this sector remains unorganised in most developing countries. These unintegrated processes in urban expansion, development and construction lead to a huge amount of emissions that cause environmental degradation. This emphasises the need to establish the use of ‘Green Technologies’ and ‘Green Materials’ in the Construction Sector at least as a beginning to bridge the gap between practices in the allied sectors as well. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>With a view to examine this possibility, the </em><em>feasibility of green technologies was considered to be studied, for Eastern Vishakhapatnam, the selected study area, which is a developing potential zone identified for potential integration of Green Technologies in construction processes. A comprehensive literature review to identify the major accomplishments and shortcomings in the chosen field, followed by a pre-feasibility analysis was conducted through an organized site visit during an academic project that included personal interaction with the concerned stakeholders and an assessable questionnaire survey. The notion of this study was to collect the details of similar category projects for the incorporation of select ‘green technologies’ identified from relevant literature studies in domains such as energy, material and waste management, which are known to cause maximum impact on the environment.&nbsp; This procedure in turn formed the very basis of the overall methodology of this study.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>The analysis of outcomes of the survey helped in developing a breakthrough understanding about the stakeholder’s potential and roles in the overall feasibility of integrating the Green Technologies. Nevertheless, the comparison of the prospective projects in the study area, with the existing projects of the same category that have successfully adopted the green technologies abroad, helped to optimize the framework of integrating green technologies, using green materials based on the above-mentioned domains, for the proposed pilot project. It is inferred from the analysis that it is possible to integrate green technologies in the domains of energy, materials and waste management in prospective projects, if certain constraints and challenges related to social, administrative and economic spheres are eradicated thus encouraging Sustainable Development.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>Integrated strategy of adopting green technologies with green construction practices, in major identified domains of energy, materials and waste management will fetch new outcomes and lead towards aiding sustainable development.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Ex-Post Facto Research</em></p> Bageshree Yeolekar-Kadam Sudarsan J. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 7 1 210 223 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0186 Application of Organisational Justice Theory to Performance Appraisal – a Study Conducted in the Service Sector Enterprises in Kerala <p><strong>Purpose:</strong><em> Globalisation has now become a very common word. It has been the topic of discussion during the last two decades. What globalisation implies is that a country's economy synchronises with the global economy. As the result, severe competition originated in the market. The firm-to-firm competition forced the companies to enhance their productivity and efficiency. Today, PA is used as a most imperative component of HR practices. It helps to assess the performance of employees based on predetermined standards and it enables the HR department to increase the efficiency of employees as well as the organisation. Greenberg was one to apply the theory of organisational justice to Performance Appraisal (PA). Application Greenberg's theory in performance appraisal helps to ensure the system of performance appraisal is fair and just. This study was conducted in five sub-sectors of the service sector in Kerala and primary data was collected from employees. The study is used to understand the application of Greenberg theory in service sector enterprises in Kerala to know the level of justice and fairness of PAS.</em></p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong><em>The study was conducted in the service sector in Kerala. The primary data were acquired through a questionnaire. In this study, the different sectors (Financial Services, Tourism and hospitality, Media and entertainment, Telecommunications, Retail) were randomly selected. Organisations conducting a system of employee Performance Appraisal were considered in this study. A total of 543 samples were selected for the study from the five sectors. The samples were selected randomly. The questionnaire was used as a primary data collection tool.</em></p> <p><strong>Finding:</strong> <em>The results found that, in Kerala, different sectors follow different methods of performance appraisal techniques to their employees. The methods are different from one sector to another.</em><em> And the study also found that, the employees in the service sector enterprises in Kerala were believed that the performance appraisal system is fair and just. Finally, the study revealed that the private sector PA system is more effective than the public sector. The techniques used in the private sector were more competent than public sector enterprises.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> <em>This is used to conduct the application of organisational justice theory employee performance appraisal in the service sector enterprises in Kerala.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Applied Research</em></p> Sujith A. S. Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-03-14 2022-03-14 7 1 224 232 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0187 The Efficacy of a Community-based Intervention in Bangladesh for Enhancing Successful Ageing Indicators <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>The aims of this research was to see whether a community-based intervention could be effective in promoting comprehensive indicators for successful aging. </em></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> <em>The participants (60 years old and above) were recruited from rural and urban parts of Bangladesh's Rangpur district for this seven-month intervention program. Successful aging indicators included blood pressure control or diabetes management, adherence to recommended physical exercise and diet, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, engagement in social activities, religious activities, and volunteer activities. </em></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><em>In the follow-up period the likelihood to control hypertension and diabetes in comparison to the baseline were 1.64 (95&nbsp;% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12- 3.38) and 1.89 (95&nbsp;% CI = 1.44- 2.87) times higher.&nbsp; Participants in the follow-up were 2.21 (95&nbsp;% CI = 1.87–3.45), 2.01 (95&nbsp;% CI = 1.61–2.99) times more likely to adherence to recommended physical activity and diet compared with the baseline. This intervention was shown to be significantly linked to lower likelihood of developing cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms. In the follow-up period group activities increased 98% as compared to baseline. </em></p> <p><strong>Novelty/Value: </strong><em>This community-based intervention was found to be helpful in boosting successful aging markers for chronic disease management, maintaining good mental and physical function, and maintaining life engagement.</em></p> <p><strong>Type of Research:</strong> <em>Empirical Research.</em></p> Prosannajid Sarkar Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-03-24 2022-03-24 7 1 233 244 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0188 A Parallel Scanner for the Concurrent Execution of Lexical Analyzer Tasks on Multi-Core Machines using Dynamic Task Allocation Algorithm <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Massive multi-core architecture is rapidly becoming the standard in digital technology due to its high and parallel computational capability and performance benefits. To fully utilize the technological capabilities of multi-core systems, system software such as compilers should be re-engineered for parallel processing. Several important contributions have been made in the past to enhance the efficiency of the lexical analysis process by leveraging the innate parallel processing capability of multi-core computers. This trend of implementation shows that a parallel lexical analyzer tends to perform lexing tasks better than a conventional sequential lexical analyzer. This article discusses the way of making the tasks in parallel during the scanning of source program in the phase of lexical analysis. The objective of this study is to explore how to perform lexical analysis in parallel. On multi-core processors, multiple processes of the lexical analyzer program can run concurrently to scan multiple lines in the input stream in parallel for token detection. This is done by allocating tasks line-by-line to the core which is not engaged yet. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> <em>Developing a theoretical and experimental approach for parallelizing the lexical scanning process on a multi-core system.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> <em>According to the theoretical and experimental results, the proposed methodology significantly outperforms the sequential approach in terms of tokenization. It considerably reduces the time required for lexical analysis during the compilation process. The result establishes unequivocally that the parallel lexical analyzer's performance should scale linearly with the number of cores. It is clearly observed that the speedup is expected to increase further if the number of CPU cores increases. This enhancement would speed up the compilation process even more.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> <em>A dynamic task allocation algorithm is developed for the concurrent execution of a lexical analyzer task on multi-core systems.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Experimental Research.</em></p> Vaikunta Pai T Nethravathi P. S. Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 7 1 245 253 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0189 Quantitative ABCD Analysis of Organic Food Product and its Impact on Purchase Intention <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>The ABCD (Advantages, Benefits, Constraints, and Disadvantages) analysis framework examines the effectiveness of a concept, or idea in a given environment. It studies the individual characteristics, system characteristics, efficiency of the concept or a strategy. It was also analyzed to identify the constitutional critical elements. In the quantitative analysis using ABCD appropriate score/weightage can be given to each constituent critical element of organic food products and its impact on purchase intention. </em></p> <p><strong>Design: </strong><em>ABCD analysis framework identifies the relevant score weightage which is assigned to all the critical constituents under each variable, which analysis the effectiveness of organic food products and its impact on purchase intention, through empirical data analysis and the total score of each construct is measured by evaluating the score through a focus group.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong><em> The result exhibits that under ABCD analysis framework, the analysis has identified 98 key critical constituent elements under the constructs which satisfy the effectiveness of organic food products and its impact on purchase intention. Finally, the weightage ranking of 98 key critical constituent elements under the study determines a high satisfactory level with benefits gaining the highest score followed by advantages and disadvantages with neutral weightage and constraints with no satisfactory level.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>This paper begins with a review of previous research analysis using ABCD analysis framework and moves to what is being implemented on determinant issues, key attributes, factor analysis, elementary analysis based on critical constituent elements of organic food product and their impact on purchase intention.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Empirical analysis</em>.</p> Sujaya H. Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 7 1 254 278 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0190 In-store Customer Perception towards Furniture in a Multi-product outlet – A Synthesis of Literature Review and Research Agenda <p><strong>Purpose:</strong><em>&nbsp;Consumers’ when getting into a store; behaviour is critical; to be observed-and to understand their perception of products that they are eager to buy. When customers look at products, in general, as they walk through the retail outlet, their perception gets influenced due to various factors like atmospherics and visual merchandising, sales executives, price display offers, and many more. This interesting; study leads us to understand what would work and what needs improvement. A customer would buy based on the influence that he is subjected- to through various mediums of impact created in an outlet like lights, music, air conditioning, product feel, and many more or through digital media. Hence this article synthesizes; many years of scholarly research on consumer perception published in a few of the leading journals in this field; globally.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach:</strong><em>&nbsp;Buying products from a store is a dynamic process involving individuals and families; therefore, the cornerstone of purchase is to buy the best value product at a cost that matches the value the product delivers. The base of creating a good customer relationship is on the present value and the future value and longevity of a product that customers utilize and enjoy. This literature synthesis is- undertaken; to uncover various aspects that pull a customer to a multi-product store via digital marketing applications or conventional marketing processes. Expectations created by the digital marketing team vs. reality in the store create better bondage with the store team therefore and the perception towards the store changes with time and the product satisfaction that he derives.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/ Results:</strong><em>&nbsp;This literature synthesis establishes that the concept of customer perception is highly personalized as each one tends to perceive differently based on their age, gender, qualification, religious beliefs, cognitive as well as social and cultural background. Their perception of positive thoughts and negative feelings is, observed while handling products. The research gap and the identified agenda for further synthesis were distinct and assessed using the most valuable ABCD structures. Accordingly, the literature investigation findings are synthesized and analyzed by submitting recommendations for creating a wide-ranging research agenda about customer perception in the Indian Retail market.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong><em>&nbsp;This is to understand how individuals and families behave when they visit a store. An attempt by the author to further enhance these studies for a doctoral thesis presents an attempt to learn and explore what actions and behaviours lead to a purchase of a furniture product by a customer. If these; cues; could be found from a large segment of customers, then it would be easy to create an environment of conducive signs that lead to a close of a sale[s].</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong><em>&nbsp;Literature Review</em></p> Venkatesh S. Amin Anil Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-16 2022-04-16 7 1 279 305 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0191 Cost-Effective Design of Latrine for Low Income Group <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>Latrine is a symbol of cleanness. It is most to have a latrine even for getting basic government facilities.&nbsp; Though the country is declared ODF, in reality, it is difficult to maintain the status for long. There are pieces of evidence that the declared ODF zones have reverted to open defecation over time. It was in this context, that the study was carried out to explore appropriate latrines to be constructed in the case of Mahottari District, Nepal. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> <em>Two communities namely Khyarmara (of Bardibas Municipality wards no. 10 and 11) and Pipara (of Pipara rural municipality, wards no. 1 to 7) were selected for the study. Household surveys along with the observation of the latrines constructed in the homestead, focus group discussion with the local people and key informants with the local implementers are the main sources of data followed by secondary data. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> <em>The study has identified three different types of latrines existing in the study areas including water seal offset type single pit latrine (SO), latrine with the septic tank (LST), and water seal offset type double pit latrine (DO). By and large, SO-type latrines exist in the study area. It was found that 87 % of the latrines are currently sustained (SL), whereas the rest fall under either the sustained but at risk (SAR) category or simply not sustained (NS). The study analysis showed that the water seal offset double pit latrine (DO) is more sustainable and cost-effective in comparison to other types of latrines that exist in the study area. This led to the recommendation for constructing DO types of latrines in the study areas. It is very challenging for people having low income to afford to construct the latrines. Therefore, it is worthwhile to provide certain support in terms of capital subsidy to construct the latrines for the weaker section of society.</em>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong><em> This is significant to policymakers and designers to overcome the issue of toilet construction. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Action Research</em></p> A. K. Mishra Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-16 2022-04-16 7 1 306 321 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0192 Customer Satisfaction Towards Online Shopping with reference to Mangalore City, Karnataka <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>T</em><em>he central idea of this paper is to study the satisfaction of the customers towards online shopping and understand their problems while shopping online.</em></p> <p><strong>Design: </strong><em>Primary data was collected by 203 sample respondents from Mangalore city, Karnataka State. Secondary data was collected from journal papers, books &amp; web pages. The data was analysed by running through SMARTPLS 3.0 software. Measurement model and Structural model was developed and IPMA analysis were used as statistical tools. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong><em>The outcomes of the study states; Perceived Value, Service Quality and System Quality affects Customer Satisfaction. However, service quality requires more improvement as per IPMA analysis.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>The results of the study will help the online stores to frame feasible strategies keeping in mind the interests of all the stakeholders in this sphere.</em></p> <p><strong>Type of Paper: </strong><em>Empirical Analysis</em></p> Dsouza Prima Frederick Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 7 1 322 334 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0193 A Systematic Review and Research Agenda on Mental Wellbeing of the Caregivers of Intellectually Disabled Children <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Intellectual disability is an umbrella term that focuses on the difficulties in understanding, comprehending, and applying things. Children having intellectual disabilities will have difficulty in adaptive functioning like understanding, communicating, identifying, learning, giving attention, or thinking. The main aim was to identify and intervene in the mental well-being of the caretakers and parents having intellectually disabled children. To elicit parents' perspectives on benefits for children having intellectual disability in connection with demographic details, formative years, resources, and to confront the consequences of upbringing a child with intellectual disability.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>Systematic literature, resulting in the publication of studies that centered on the mental health of parents and caregivers of children having intellectual disability. Systematic literature scrutiny was performed using the search words intellectually disabled children, caregiver/ parents/ mother and mental health and well-being in the electronic databases Research gate, Academia, Google Scholar, and Psyc Info.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>As a result of caring for their challenged children, parents frequently experience physical and psychological discomfort, negatively impacting their psychological well-being in daily life.&nbsp; Parents of children with severe disabilities may suffer more stress while caring for them since they demand more physical exertion. For a variety of reasons, it is considered that parents' physical and psychological well-being has a direct impact on their children. This article reviews the various literature and the interpretation can be useful for clinical purpose to improve, understand issues among caregivers of disabled children and also to provide future directions, to improve parental well-being by reducing parental stress Parents of children with intellectual disabilities are more likely to suffer from mental health problems, according to research.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>This review presents key findings from studies that show parental stress and the need for psycho education to help parents give their children with intellectual disabilities with evidence-based assistance and intervention. Given the increased risk of stress, anxiety, and depression that this demographic has been linked to, we first address stressors and challenges associated with intellectual disability, as well as the future direction of the present research. Following that, we describe contemporary trends and difficulties and seek to fill in gaps in the existing literature, indicating that more research is needed. We conclude that future research on psychoeducation intervention and relaxation therapy for improving the subjective wellbeing of caregivers of intellectually challenged children is needed. Implementing parental interventions in parallel with the child's interventions may raise mental health.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Systematic literature review-based analysis.</em></p> Abdul Hameed P. V. Suphala Kotian Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 7 1 335 353 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0194 Review of Displacement, Space, and Identity in the Postcolonial Novels of Jhumpa Lahiri, Rohinton Mistry and Manju Kapur <p><strong>Purpose:</strong><em> This study focuses on the themes of displacement, space, and identity depicted in the post-colonial novels of Jhumpa Lahiri, Rohinton Mistry, and Manju Kapur. Post-colonial writings, particularly novels, deal with two major issues concerning the ‘modern people’ - displacement and search for identity. This study tries to analyze the treatment of these themes in the selected novels of the authors selected for the study.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>:<em> For the study, many research articles, books, and research theses have been reviewed. Previous studies on similar lines have been thoroughly read and reviewed to get a comprehensive idea of the work that has been done so far. Both offline and online resources have been consulted for the study. An exploratory analytical discussion approach of research methodology is adopted to carry on the study.</em></p> <p><strong>Finding/Result:</strong><em> After reading and reviewing the resources available on the topic selected for the study, it has been found that the theme of displacement, space and search for identity has been a recurrent theme in the novels of Jhumpa Lahiri, Rohinton Mistry, and Manju Kapur. These issues have been dealt with in the novels of these writers either explicitly or as an underlying theme.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong><em> The study proposed to be conducted will be original since the study dwells mainly on displacement it focuses on space in the formation of identity. Space excludes and includes individuals and communities. The analysis on displacement in connection with space and identity in the writings of the diasporic writers and writings on diaspora sheds a light on the aspects of the formation of identities in the postcolonial scenario.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong><em> Review Article </em></p> Ambrose M. C. A. Lourdusamy Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 7 1 354 372 10.47992/IJMTS.2581.6012.0195