International Journal of Applied Engineering and Management Letters (IJAEML) <p><strong>International Journal of Applied Engineering and Management Letters (IJAEML) (ISSN - 2581-7000)</strong> is an online, peer-reviewed research journal published by Srinivas Publication, Srinivas University, Mangalore, India. It provides a global publication platform for Professors, Research scholars, academicians, professionals and students engaged in Research. The main aim of IJAEML is to become the world’s leading journal that is preferred and trusted by the community through publishing authentic, peer-reviewed and scientifically developed research articles of international calibre. IJAEML publishes research papers in the field Management and Technology. The Journal is online open access, published bi-annual and the language of the journal is English. IJAEML accepts exceptional research contribution from the authors in the form of original papers, review papers, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, case studies, empirical research, and technical notes.</p> Srinivas Publication, Mangalore, Karnataka, India-575001 en-US International Journal of Applied Engineering and Management Letters (IJAEML) 2581-7000 Measuring the Level of Preparedness to Face Challenges during Uncertain Times: A FirmLevel Scale for Brick-and-Mortar Retailers in India (FLSPU-b) <p>A majority of brick-and-mortar (B&amp;M) retailers in India have adapted firm-level and outputdriven measures to evaluate their overall retailing performance. This output-driven measures approach is distracting them from focusing on input variables and efficiency that is inevitably imperative if sustainable retail profit and returns on investment (ROI) are expected. Even though the LSRS-b instrument developed by us earlier could measure the current performance of a B&amp;M retailer using input-driven measures, it fails to provide the B&amp;M retailer a comprehensive scale to measure their preparedness to face challenges during uncertain times. B&amp;M retailers in India struggle to get consumers walk-ins into their stores owing to unexpected short-term disruptions in the market such as i) shutdown of specific locality forced by political parties or other organizations; ii) entry of new competitors in a catchment; iii) lucrative offers floated by others in the catchment; iv) heavy rainy days; v) heavy winter days; vi) peak summer days etc, and long-term market disruption such as i) lockdown of a locality due to public health safety measures (for instance, Covid-19 lockdown); ii) shutdown of a locality for civil and infrastructure developmental works; iii) entry of new retailing formats (for instance, Online stores), etc. We have observed that in India this struggle is not once in a while. In this study, we have studied a few select organized B&amp;M retailers to identify 21 variables that directly or indirectly determine the level of preparedness of B&amp;M retailers in India to face challenges during uncertain times. The FLSPU-b instrument has been designed considering the majority of variables that are inputs-driven and have significant determination with the ROI and indicating the level of preparedness to face challenges during uncertain times. We believe that the FLSPU-b scale would be instrumental in accurately measuring the level of preparedness as the same is consistent with the arguments, suggestions, and recommendations of the Theory of B&amp;M Retailing in India (ToR-b) and the Concept of Margin of Safety (MoSR-b) for B&amp;M retailers in India.</p> Ganesha H. R. Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-16 2021-03-16 5 1 1 18 Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using NS3 <p>Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is an emerging technology that brings tremendous technological advancement in the method of communication among smart vehicles. Due to its complex infrastructure and vehicle speed, data routing remains difficult at VANET. A VANET is also considered similar to Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET), and MANET routing protocols can be adapted for VANETs for performance evaluation. In this work, we have selected a real world scenario from our locality with high traffic issues, Nanthoor Mangalore City Karnataka, India and a Map is generated using Open Street Map using SUMO and the MANET routing protocols AODV, OLSR, DSDV and OLSR are evaluated using NS3.</p> Soumya S. Krishna Prasad K. Navin N. Bappalige Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 5 1 19 28 Forward Kinematics Demonstration of 6DF Robot using CoppeliaSim and C# <p>Purpose: Robot researchers need the simulator to test their functions and algorithm before implementing into the real Robot. When we search for a good simulator, a customizable Robot simulator is not available to the researcher. Some good options are available in the market, but their price is too high, not affordable. After much research, we found a better solution around all aspects, fully customizable and entirely free of cost. There are two sides. One is a 3D view of robotics ARM, and another is a joint controller of robotics ARM. For 3D simulation, CoppeliaSim is the best option. It is free of cost and Open Source. The C# language is becoming famous for its managed code structure and ease of implementation. Our Robot controller is in the C# language. Microsoft visual studio is the best IDE to control the simulator. It is an unparallel IDE for the programmer. In the CoppeliaSim little bit, Lua script is in associated functions. For Communication Between the CoppeliaSim and our application, we will use the Remote API Framework.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: Here we are using the prebuild robot model of CoppeliaSim IDE (Integrated Development Environment) to save the time and attach Lua scripts associated with robot object. From Visual studio IDE we control the Virtual Robot through TCP/IP socket object. Using GUI (Graphical User Interface) we send the command to the robot.<br>Findings/Result: The researcher who is developing robotics arm, is required the vast knowledge of position and rotation of different joints. Changing the joint value using the GUI element, we can observe the various robot pose. The researcher can proceed further Sending the multiple sequential command. Thus, we can simulate industrial process automation.<br>Originality/Value: Using both CoppeliaSim and visual studio IDE can create a better environment for our robotics research.<br>Paper Type: Simulation.</p> Sudip Chakraborty Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 5 1 29 37 A Custom Robotic ARM in CoppeliaSim <p>Purpose: For robotics research, we require the robot to test our functions, Logics, algorithms, tasks, etc. Generally, we do not experiment with the practical robot. The primary issue is Practical robots are costly. The individual researcher usually cannot afford it. The second one is, the test with the real robot is risky and can damage property, human life, and itself due to bugs in the program or abnormal activity. So, it is best practice to experiment in Simulator first. When the algorithm is finalized, it can be implemented into a real robot. A researcher who starts the Robotics research, the learning curve is too long to develop a workable robot in Simulator. This paper demonstrates how we can easily create a 7 Degree of Freedom (DOF) custom robot for our research purpose. We will use the CoppeliaSim robot simulator for this purpose. It is free, opensource, and entirely GUI-based. We can create a robot without writing any code using this software.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: Here we describe to develop a custom robot. At first, we created a DH parameter for our robot. Then following the step-by-step procedure, the robot is created. After creating, we can attach our code on any object using LUA script language. To control the robot from external world, we can connect through TCP/IP socket communication. Establishing the communication, our robot will move depending on processed algorithm.<br>Findings/Result: The robotic arm researcher needs robotics arm to test their forward kinematics, Inverse kinematics, statics, dynamics etc. code. Here we design our custom robots for research purpose.<br>Originality/Value: Using CoppeliaSim, we can design custom robot for our research.<br>Paper Type: Simulation based Research</p> Sudip Chakraborty Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 5 1 38 50 10.47992/IJAEML.2581.7000.0091 Smart City Waste Management through ICT and IoT driven Solution <p>The growing population and mass relocation of citizens from urban and semi-urban areas to Smart Cities have resulted in exponential growth in Smart Cities and thereby certain challenges. One of the major challenges Smart Cities are facing is to control, manage and process waste generation on daily basis. Waste collection and processing at a wider scale is not an easy job. Growing population and resource constraints in waste management activities are the primary reasons which have made waste management a tough job. To deal with this challenging process, Smart Cities uses Smart Waste Management System. This paper has provided an overview of a typical Smart Waste Management system and a review of selected research papers on Smart Waste Management. We tried to identify areas of improvement with the existing Smart Waste Management Solutions and proposed an innovative solution called "iSmartWMS" for carrying out waste management specifically for Smart Cities. The paper has discussed in detail the architecture and building blocks of the proposed Smart Waste Management System, along with the details of software tools, sensors, and technologies proposed in iSmartWMS. The Paper has finally discussed results with respect to prototype implementation of iSmartWMS and also future plans to further improve the iSmartWMS smart waste management system. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Dipak S. Gade Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-06 2021-05-06 5 1 51 65 10.47992/IJAEML.2581.7000.0092 Compliance Status of Building Bylaws and Codes in High-rise Apartment Buildings of Nepal <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The implementation and compliance of building bylaws and building codes in apartment buildings in Nepal are always questionable. Thus, the overall objective of the study was to assess the building bylaws and building code compliance in apartment buildings.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Data were collected by field observation of selected thirteen apartments and questionnaire survey after extensive literature review. It is analyzed based on the standard of codes and bylaws and effect during the earthquake and presented using charts, tables, and graphs.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> Though the provisions of bylaws i.e., greenery open space have not complied in four apartments and setback criteria have not complied in two apartments, all other provisions of bylaws have fully complied with in all thirteen apartments selected for the study. Likewise, most of the provisions of the Nepal National Building Code have fully complied in all thirteen apartments selected for the study. However, the RCC bands in masonry infill walls were not provided in all the thirteen selected apartments. The study revealed that the structural members in most of the apartments during the Gorkha earthquake 2015 were damaged minor to moderate only. But the nonstructural infill walls in most of the apartments were damaged moderately to severely. The main reason for severe to moderate damage on nonstructural infill walls of apartments was due to the RCC bands and vertical reinforcement not provided in the nonstructural walls. So, the RCC bands shall be provided in masonry infill walls and also the nonstructural masonry infill walls should be replaced in apartment buildings with lightweight, prefabricated materials to avoid damage in masonry infill walls. Similarly, the designer and developer himself should be made fully responsible and accountable for full compliance of building code and building Bylaws. Rewards and punishment systems should be introduced with the level of compliance with the provisions of codes and bylaws. Thus, the study revealed that the apartment building construction is a formal housing process regulated by the government of Nepal in the overall process of approval, supervision, and monitoring. The High-rise apartment buildings in Kathmandu valley are safe enough from earthquake, fire, and other natural disasters since the compliance with building codes and bylaws is satisfactory. Also, there is no option to go for High-rise Apartment buildings in the cities like Kathmandu where the land is very limited.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> It is empirical research to signify the compliance and contribution of building codes and bylaws</p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> Ex-post facto project management research.</p> Anjay Kumar Mishra Ganesh Karmacharya Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-21 2021-05-21 5 1 66 79 10.47992/IJAEML.2581.7000.0093 Job Safety Analysis during Tunnel Construction <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>There are many tunnels under construction in Nepal as its mountainous country. Road, water supply, hydropower, and irrigation projects are under construction in Nepal through the tunnel.</em><strong><em> “Safety First”</em></strong><em> should be one of the main objectives of any construction projects mainly tunnel and shall be given high priority throughout the construction period. A single person alone cannot do it alone. A team including safety professionals to concentrate on health, safety, and environmental concerns shall be involved to ensure that safety environment will be maintained in the construction site. OSH is the relation between man and man, man and machine and man and environment. The paper aims to analyze the job safety of major selected construction activities during tunneling.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> &nbsp;<em>Site Observation, Key Informant Interview (KII), and Study of Methods of Statement were done as main data collection tools. Job safety analysis and identification of activity with high risk level involved should be determined so that proper prevention and control mechanism could be determined and implemented. Drilling, excavation, blasting, mocking, scaling and shotcerting were major activities whose hazards, prevention mechanism and the responsible party were identified.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> <em>The study reveals that the main occupational hazards were mechanical and chemical hazards. Rockfall and landslide were noted as the major mechanical hazard whereas toxic gas and cement dust were the main chemical hazards. Similarly, noise and vibration were the main physical hazards and untimely payment of wages and leave were psychological hazards. It was reported that the major accident occurred at sites where the leg struck on steps of boomer while pulling a worker to save him from falling of boomer, penetration by fine grinding wheel material into the eye while carrying out grind cutting of drum and faint due to oxygen deficiency inside the tunnel. Some minor accidents were road traffic accidents, cut by sharp tools, fall/hit to/hit by objects, splashing of acids, burning caught by fire, etc. and the fatal accidents was one of the mechanics blown away by the erupted boomer tyres while filling up air into the same and one of the workers lost his life due to truck accident inside the work premise. The families of the demised had been compensated by the company. For safe construction requires the teamwork of sincere and coordinated effort of all stakeholders. Lack of regular inspection and monitoring at the site was the main cause of improper implementation of prevailing health and safety regulations</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong>&nbsp; <em>The study is highly significant for working engineers to perform the task without any misfortune inside the tunnel. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Project Management Action Research</em>.</p> Anjay Kumar Mishra Aithal P. S. Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-29 2021-05-29 5 1 80 96 10.47992/IJAEML.2581.7000.0094