International Journal of Applied Engineering and Management Letters (IJAEML) 2022-06-27T15:15:19+00:00 Managing Editor Open Journal Systems <p><strong>International Journal of Applied Engineering and Management Letters (IJAEML) (ISSN - 2581-7000)</strong> is an online, peer-reviewed research journal published by Srinivas Publication, Srinivas University, Mangalore, India. It provides a global publication platform for Professors, Research scholars, academicians, professionals and students engaged in Research. The main aim of IJAEML is to become the world’s leading journal that is preferred and trusted by the community through publishing authentic, peer-reviewed and scientifically developed research articles of international calibre. IJAEML publishes research papers in the field Management and Technology. The Journal is online open access, published bi-annual and the language of the journal is English. IJAEML accepts exceptional research contribution from the authors in the form of original papers, review papers, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, case studies, empirical research, and technical notes.</p> ICT and Digital Technology based Solutions for Smart City Challenges and Opportunities 2022-01-17T09:01:25+00:00 Dipak S. Gade Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: <em>Today's Smart Cities are rapidly evolving with the help of the latest tools and technologies and also due to large investment and priority focus by various countries across the globe. Smart Cities while growing also consider the environmental aspects such as producing lower carbon footprint, lower harmful gas emissions, and lower consumption of power. Abiding by this new paradigm, various Smart Cities started focusing on continuous improvement and innovation in their different services. Many Smart Cities have their own pain points such as traffic congestion, water scarcity, energy deficiency, waste management, poor participation of citizens in city administration, maintenance of complex IT Infrastructure, and so on. Such kind of issues may differ in scale and type but mostly common across geographies. While developing, operating, and maintaining Smart Cities, it is necessary to identify the most pressing and urgent issues that Smart City solutions must tackle on priority. In such cases, high-end technologies and tools can help to focus and eliminate the problems. In this paper, we analysed key challenges faced by Smart Cities during the development, operation, and maintenance related activities of various Smart Services and how these challenges and issues are effectively addressed by some of the key technologies with special attention to ICT and digital technologies. We have also reviewed some selected research papers devoted to Smart Cities challenges ad issues and how these issues are addressed using the latest tools and technologies. Finally, we have also specified the future plans about the discussed technical solutions to undertake its full-fledged implementation and addressing of its some of the limitations.&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: <em>This paper is based on the primary data collected while preparing research papers written by us on Smart Cities and a systematic literature review of existing literature including journal research papers, book chapters, dedicated websites, and white papers.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result</strong>: <em>Smart Cities various operational and development challenges are effectively get addressed using various ICT and digital technologies. Some of the key technologies that played an important role in addressing some of the key concerns of Smart Cities include IoT, AI and ML, Blockchain, Data Analytics, Digital Twin, 5G, and Cloud Computing.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong>: <em>The Information presented in this paper is genuine and original and based on own research, data collected from industry professionals, systematic literature review of existing relevant research papers, and relevant data analysis and findings. Most of the information presented in this paper is derived from our own research papers written on Smart City services and solutions.&nbsp; </em>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Type</strong>:&nbsp; <em>Technology oriented Research</em></p> 2022-01-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Simulated 3D Printer in CoppeliaSim 2022-01-24T13:49:28+00:00 Sudip Chakraborty Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Now, 3D Printer is becoming popular. Not only used for printing toys but also to print some needful items for prototyping. We go for final production after prototype approval. So the researcher needs a 3D printer for their research. A good 3D printer is not only costly but cumbersome also. Carrying a 3D printer is too much problem. We can use the simulator to continue our research work in this scenario. Here we provide the procedure for building a 3D printer in the simulator. We used Coppeliasim to make it. It is an excellent open-source simulator. It has a good user interface. Following the step, the researcher can build it quickly. All project code and simulator files are available for the researcher in Github. They can download, use and integrate into their project without any issues.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: <em>In the CoppeliaSim simulator, we created a 3D printer model. We adopted the Ender 3D printer specification, a popular and economical 3D printer. After completing the model, we add the LUA script associated with the base. Some code is kept as a module inside the project folder for better understanding. After running the simulation, it will draw a square on the work area for the working demonstration.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>We can create a virtual 3D printer through this research work. So without having an actual printer, we can test our written algorithm, try the 3D model file, and understand the functionality of the 3D Printer. It can be integrated into the researcher’s project by customizing some physical parameters or making a different 3D printer model following the procedure described here.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong>: <em>This research work may add value to the researcher’s work. We provide the information on creating a workable 3D printer as simple as possible in the CoppeliaSim robot simulator. Customizing some physical parameters can be a tool to help the research work rapidly.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong>Simulation-based Research.</p> 2022-01-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industry-wise Dispersion of Investment Returns in Indian CPSEs: Experiential Confirmation on Aggregation 2022-02-08T16:08:14+00:00 Sudipta Ghosh Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>The CPSEs play a vital role in the economic structure of the country by supplying necessary products and services. </em><em>To sustain in the long run, it is essential to earn a reasonable amount of profit on a consistent basis. Thus, the higher the dispersion in investment returns, the higher is the risk and vice-versa.</em><em> In this perspective, an industry-wise dispersion of investment returns in Indian CPSEs are carried out from 2010-11 to 2019-20.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Design/Methodology/Approach: </em></strong><em>To fulfill the research objectives of the study, secondary data is used. Dispersion is calculated for the investment ratios by coefficient of variation. Furthermore, paired ‘t’ test is applied </em><em>to locate any significant transform in the average dispersion of investment returns of all the selected industries taken together. One-way ANOVA is also applied </em><em>to measure variation in investment returns among the selected industries.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>The study results reveal that the rate of fluctuation in investment returns has varied extensively among the industries. Moreover, most of the selected industries in the 1<sup>st</sup> sub-period have shown better consistency in investment returns as compared to the 2<sup>nd</sup> sub-period. Further, significant differences are observed in investment returns among the selected industries, which implies that investment returns in each selected industry has a significant bearing on the aggregate investment returns of the CPSEs.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value<em>: </em></strong><em>To recognize the rate of dispersal in investment returns generated by the CPSEs. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Empirical Research.</em></p> 2022-02-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Impact of Sustainable Finance on MSMEs and other Companies to Promote Green Growth and Sustainable Development 2022-02-12T15:34:25+00:00 Mahesh K. M. Aithal P. S. Sharma K. R. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Sustainable Finance (SF) contributes to better development and better Finance for Economic growth. Sustainable development is protecting and restoring the ecological system. SIDBI, NITI Aayog, and World Bank facilitate Sustainable Finance to encourage businesses to grow from Small Medium Enterprises to large Industries to make an enormous global impact. As per the World Bank estimate, adversely affect the standard of living of the population and climate change will reduce India’s GDP by nearly 3%. For tracking the climate protection performance of the country, the CCPI tool is used. The Key sustainable finance providers to companies and MSME’s are Banks, Corporations, International Financial Institutions, Institutional Investors, International organizations through Financial Instruments Climate Funds, Green Bonds, Impact Finance, Social bonds, Microfinance, SIDBI Sustainable Finance Scheme for funding, NABARD, and Make in India. MSMEs, and SMEs involved in the Projects Solar Power Plants, renewable energy, Green Machinery, Waste Management, Electric Vehicles (EV), Clean Energy, Recycle, Poverty alleviations, and Energy conservation, and India is committed to achieving Net Zero Emissions by 2070. During the Climate summit in Glasgow, India accepted for Five –Point climate ‘panchamrit, or pledge’ towards climate change and Climate Finance. As per the Environment ministry. India needs $280 billion for green infrastructure and the government of India proposed the creation of a Social Stock Exchange, Europe Investment Bank (EIB) with SBI. RBI has considered Green and Sustainable projects should be put under Priority Sector Lending (PSL) to support GE (Green Economy) growth and to meet the SDG (Sustainable Development Goals) and ESG (Economic, Social, Environment) guidelines for fundraising.</em></p> <p><strong>Methodology / Design /Approaches: </strong><em>In this article theoretical concepts are used in the analysis of various financing Mechanics for green production and Sustainable development.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings and results: </strong><em>The effectiveness of sustainable finance or Climate finance required for MSME and Companies for greener production infrastructure and government of India missions on climate Change, Regular to boost the ESG to promote sustainable development and Economic growth.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong><em>Analysed the various articles and case studies and prepared the model required for sustainable fiancé for green growth in India.</em></p> <p><strong>Type of Paper: </strong><em>Research Analysis</em></p> 2022-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Direct to Consumer using Livestream as an Innovative Marketing Medium during COVID-19 2022-02-15T14:23:47+00:00 D. Rajasekar Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Owing to COVID, when many of the physical retail areas were closed and customers were inside, brands were always considering inventive ways to associate with the customers. The accessibility of customers to sellers</em> <em>remained. The live stream was an awesome way to access customers and multiply engagement. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Application: </strong><em>Establishing a conceptual notion based on model development using the emphasis group - learning method and model analysis using the ABCD listing methodology.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result<em>:</em></strong><em> The analyst has recognized that engagement must not be restricted to buyers alone. Livestream is an amazing stage to lock in accomplices as well as internal employees within the company. Livestreaming is long-term of retail and e-commerce. The coronavirus pandemic devastated almost all sectors of the business.</em></p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications: </strong><em>Businesses across the country and across the world experienced their supplies, business relations adversely hampered. The demand for most of the products and services reduced to a great extent. The business interruption insurance policy can come to the rescue but unfortunately, if a particular business is not listed on, the policy is not covered. It becomes inevitable to review and reiterate the policies. In many places, in almost all sectors, all spheres, all levels, from the rich to the poor, the losses and damages caused by coronavirus havoc are irreparable. No agency or organization ponders over their compensation of them.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/New knowledge/Interpretation/Value: </strong><em>The objective of this paper is to exhibit the most recent patterns and upgrades in live streaming. Moreover</em>, <em>the feasibility of utilizing Livestream as an integrated marketing communication channel is explained. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Conceptual research</em></p> 2022-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Causes and Effects of Design Change of Construction Projects 2022-02-15T15:10:36+00:00 A. K. Mishra Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>Design is the mother of all construction as it is not only technical but also strategic process for competitiveness. In last decade, enormous bridge projects have been designed in Nepal but not all of them have been implemented. The causes of bridge design changes, and their effects on projects in terms of cost and time schedule is found to be complex and are influenced by numerous interrelated factors. This research focuses on the causes, effects and impacts of design change/reviews in bridge projects designed and constructed under Bridge Branch, Department of Roads (DoR). </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> <em>Five case studies were taken along with schedule questionnaire to contrast the causes, effects and impacts identified from questionnaire survey. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using the Relative Importance Index (RII) for finding the importance of each causes, effects, and impacts.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> <em>The design change was found to be done mostly in the foundation of the bridges. Sometime the redesign was done for change in scope and location of the bridge due mostly due to social and political interference and interest rather than value engineering. The Consultant was the main origin agent for design changes of bridge projects as they were the most responsible for the detail survey, soil investigation and design and estimate of the bridge whereas the client found to be second origin agent for design change due to lack of required data, change of plans or scope. The major causes for the bridge design change were Non-complaint design with site requirement, Errors in design, Differing site conditions, unforeseen problems and Inadequate working details. The top three common effects of design changes are time overrun, cost overrun and requirement of additional specialist/equipment/personnel. </em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> <em>It is basic research. This study helps in motivating and creating awareness among the design professionals working in design review which will create the influence to overcome issue of design change strategically.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Ex-Post Facto Research</em></p> 2022-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Social Engineering Attacks in E-Government System: Detection and Prevention 2022-02-17T14:44:49+00:00 Musa Midila Ahmed <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>E-Government system emerged as a novel public service provision platform that enables governance in an efficient and transparent manner globally. However, despite the success recorded so far by the increase in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) and E-government for public service provision. Social engineering attack (SEA) is one of the challenging information security attacks that prove to be difficult to tackle. This is because the attackers leverage on peoples’ weakness to exploit the system instead of technical vulnerabilities.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: <em>This paper uses PESTLE (political, economic, social, technology, legal and environment) analysis to critically evaluate the external factors affecting SEAs in E-government system. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>The study identified phishing, Baiting, Pretexting, Quid Pro Quo, Honey Trap, Tail Gating, and Pharming as the major SEA techniques used to exploit E-government systems. Furthermore, the author suggest training and awareness programme as the most effective way to detect as well as prevent SEA in E-government system. Users should be aware of the languages with terms requesting urgent response as well as unusual or unexpected situation in a suspicious messages or attachment as factors to detect SEA. Technical controls using natural language processes (NLP), security policies, multifactor authentication (MFA) as well as secured preservation of confidential information from suspicious users are some of the SEA preventive measures.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>A</em> <em>flexible and efficient interaction among citizens, businesses and government organizations is a critical factor for successful E-Government system. SEA is one of major challenges affecting communications in E-government system that requires attention. In conclusion, studies toward technological approach for solution of SEA in E-government is recommended.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Conceptual Research. </em></p> 2022-02-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 IFE & EFE, TOWS and QPSM Analysis of Online Food Delivery Services 2022-03-03T15:17:11+00:00 Dsouza Prima Frederick <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>This study attempts to analyse internal and external factors that favourably lead to increased turnover of Online Food Delivery Services and to offer best strategies that can be implemented based on those indicators, and select the most effective strategy.</em></p> <p><strong>Design: </strong><em>The study is based on primary and secondary data. Focus group method were employed as primary data source for IFE and EFE analysis followed by TOWS matrix and QSPM analysis and secondary data was obtained by reference to journal papers and books.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong><em>The results shows that the company should select the best strategy as improvement in food quality followed by related food diversification.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>The paper helps to understand the internal and external factors influencing sales of Online Food Delivery Services by the use of different analysis framework.</em></p> <p><strong>Type of the Paper: </strong><em>Qualitative Analysis</em></p> 2022-03-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investors Behavioural Intention of Cryptocurrency Adoption – A Review based Research Agenda 2022-03-10T16:38:44+00:00 Bhuvana R. P. S. Aithal <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>The current study investigates the behavioral intention to use cryptocurrencies.&nbsp;The study's major goal is to prioritize the key motivations behind it mainly&nbsp;Investment in&nbsp;cryptocurrency and to learn the investors behavioral intentions.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology: </strong><em>This study examines whether different factors determine the investors towards cryptocurrency usage like Ease of use, Social Impact, Convenience, Trust, Price volatility, Individual believes, Privacy, Risk and Decision making.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong><em>This research's findings</em> <em>are intended to provide useful information on behavioral intentions of cryptocurrency users and merchants will be able to construct a viable business strategy to stay competitive.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality: </strong><em>A literature review is conducted to examine the cryptocurrency usage behavior of Investors. The goal is to review the existing cryptocurrency behavior &amp; try classifying and provide an exhaustive analysis of the determinants influencing the cryptocurrency behavioral intention of its users. Academic references, as well as essential facts and data taken from websites, scholarly articles&nbsp;were used in the study.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Review Paper</em></p> 2022-03-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Review on Conceptual Model of Cyber Attack Detection and Mitigation Using Deep Ensemble Model 2022-03-14T15:43:58+00:00 Sangeetha Prabhu Nethravathi P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>When communication networks and the internet of things are integrated into business control systems, they become more vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which can have disastrous consequences. An Intrusion Detection System is critical for identifying and blocking attacks in IoT networks. As a result, utilizing a unique Classification and Encryption approach, this article offered a novel architecture for attack node mitigation.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: <em>This study reviews the current status of various cyber-attack detection models and their mitigation techniques. The proposed model works so that the system is first trained on the dataset, including the DDoS attack and ransomware components. The model examines if it contains malware from DDoS or Ransomware. When tested, we use trained information or a data set to provide the results on attack existence and what sort of attack we offer the extracted characteristics of the input. When the model identifies the attacker node, it is removed via the BAIT technique from the network. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>Recognizing the importance of information security is critical to combating cybercrime and encouraging cyber security. There are numerous tactics, strategies, and equipment currently in use to detect intrusion in a computer network, and continuing research is being conducted to improve their ability to detect intrusion. The basic version of a cyber-assault detection and mitigation system using the BRELU-RESNET method was evaluated in this study.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>This review-based research article examines the present state of cyber-attack detection and mitigation, as well as the research gaps and research goals.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong><em>Review-based research analysis</em></p> 2022-03-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Factors Affecting Design Review: A Case from Dang Valley, Nepal-Asia 2022-03-15T05:35:47+00:00 Amrit Kumar Dahal A. K. Mishra Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>There seem some flaws during design by consultants because of time and cost constraints. To deal with this problem there is a need for a design review for those design parts to assess their compliance for implementation. The overall objective of the research is to analyze the causes of the design review of small farmer-managed surface irrigation schemes developed by the Community Irrigation Project (CIP) about Dang Valley. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> <em>Based on selected fifteen surface irrigation schemes developed by CIP in Dang Valley, a Questionnaire survey, interviews, and observations were done along with the intensive study of Feasibility Assessment Report, project-related datasheets, and As-Built Drawings. These data have been analyzed using the Relative Importance Index (RII).</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong> <em>The study revealed that faulty survey, design, and change in local demand by users are the major reasons to change the design. The major four significant factors to cause design change in small surface irrigation schemes as obtained from the Relative Importance Index (RII) were survey leading to (1) the efficient system, (2) design with cost-effective and sustainable approach, (3) social issues, and (4) unforeseen site condition. It indicates that for the better construction and performance of FMIS there is a need for improvement in the survey, design, and other social issues like the mechanism of distributing equal water to all the beneficiary farmers.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong><em> The care against the influence of unnecessary political factors with due consideration of technical, social, environmental as well as the financial viability of schemes will be assured through the provision of a flexible Cost ceiling. Concept of design through extended team will be maintained. </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Action Research</em></p> 2022-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Novel SHP-ECC Mechanism Architecture for Attack Node Mitigation and to Predict Future Community Intrusions 2022-03-15T06:47:13+00:00 Sangeetha Prabhu Nethravathi P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Because of the apparent rapid advancement in the field of information and communication technology and its constant connection to the internet, customer and organizational data have become vulnerable to cyber-attacks, necessitating the explanation of solutions to ensure the security and protection of information throughout the industry. Today, it is critical for governments and major corporations to implement cybersecurity systems to ensure the confidentiality and security of data in the face of cyber-attacks. As community-based fully systems have become more important in today's society, they've become targets for malicious actions, prompting both industry and the research community to place a greater emphasis on resolving community intrusion detection difficulties. In network intrusion detection challenges, gadget examining algorithms have proven to be a valuable tool.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>This research provided a fully unique architecture for attack node mitigation as a result of the use of a novel type and encryption mechanism. First, the UNSW-NB15 dataset is received and separated into training and testing data. Within the Training section, information is first and foremost pre-processed, and capabilities are extracted. The relevant features are then chosen using the Taxicab Woodpecker Mating algorithm (TWMA). The BRELU-ResNet classifier is then used to classify the attacked and non-attacked data. The typical statistics are encrypted using the ESHP-ECC method, which is then saved in the security log report. Following that, the shortest distance will be calculated using Euclidean distance. Finally, the information is decrypted utilizing a set of ideas known as DSHP-ECC. If the entry appears in the log record while testing, it is marked as attacked statistics and will not be communicated. The method of detecting cyber-assaults will continue if it is not detected.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result</strong>: <em>The analysis is based on the UNSW-NB 15 dataset, which shows that the proposed approach achieves an excessive security level of 93.75 percent.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>This experimental-based research article examines the malicious activities in the cyberspace and mitigated by using a SHP-ECC mechanism.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Research Article</em></p> 2022-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Improved Parallel Scanner for the Concurrent Execution of Lexical Analysis Tasks on Multi-Core Systems 2022-03-23T03:54:36+00:00 Vaikunta Pai T Nethravathi P. S. Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>The processing power of machines will continue to accelerate massively. Modern eras of computing are driven by elevated parallel processing by the revolution of multi-core processors. This continuing trend toward parallel architectural paradigms facilitates parallel processing on a single machine and necessitates parallel programming in order to utilize the machine's enormous processing power. As a consequence, scanner generator applications will eventually need to be parallelized in order to fully leverage the throughput benefits of multi-core processors. This article discusses the way of processing the tasks in parallel during the scanning stage of lexical analysis. This is done by recognizing tokens in different lines of the source program in parallel along with auto detection of keyword in a character stream. Tasks are allocated line-by-line to the multiple instances of the lexical analyzer program. Then, each of the instances is run in parallel to detect tokens on different cores that are not yet engaged. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> <em>Developing a theoretical and experimental approach for parallelizing the lexical scanning process on a multi-core system.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong><em> Based on the developed model, the theoretical and practical results indicate that the suggested methodology outperforms the sequential strategy in terms of tokenization consistently. It significantly decreases the amount of time spent on lexical analysis during the compilation process. It is clearly observed that the speedup should increase at or close to the same rate as the number of cores and keywords in the source program increases. This enhancement would improve the overall compilation time even more.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> <em>A hybrid model is developed for the concurrent execution of a lexical analyzer on multi-core systems using a dynamic task allocation algorithm and an auto-keyword detection method.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> <em>Experimental Research.</em></p> 2022-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Voice Biometric Systems for User Identification and Authentication – A Literature Review 2022-04-20T16:29:14+00:00 Amjad Hassan Khan M. K. Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose:</strong>&nbsp;Biometric trends are used in many systems because of security aspects. The cryptosystem is such an example which uses a biometric. But due to stored biometric data for the authentication, this can be a dangerous issue. Therefore, in comparison to conventional used biometric system, voice biometric system provides an efficient safety, security and unique identity. Among various speech recognition or processing methods, there is one called automated speech conversion methods, which also used to convert the recorded voice into text format. The overall concept of voice reorganization and voice biometric system is based on the acoustic modelling.&nbsp;Therefore, for getting the perfect speech detection, robust acoustic modelling is required. Our analysis describes the advancement and usage of voice biometric system for user identification and authentication. This paper provides a descriptive review of different voice biometric systems, their advancement and applications in different fields.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The core principles of the research issue have been well discussed in the literature review on speech biometrics. During this process, selected journals from a variety of secondary data sources, such as research papers published in a variety of reputed journals periodicals that are related to the topic are studied in the methodology.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Result:</strong>&nbsp;A vocal biometric system is a biological system that captures an individual's voice and assigns it a unique characteristic for authentication purposes. This speech biometric method is primarily used to provide secure, quick, and frictionless access to various electronic devices. In the last three years, rapid technological advancements in neural networks have improved the deployment of speech biometric systems in a variety of industries. The majority of speech biometric system designs are based on the CPU, necessary power, and memory concepts. The advancement of software and hardware interface has been dramatically enhanced and implemented for many applications in the last few years, including smart watches, mobile phones, and car locking systems, where the interface between humans and electronics devices is critical. Banking security, attendance system, file access system, security control, and forensic development system are some of the other commercial applications.</p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong>&nbsp;Following the literature study, the findings were utilized to conclude that, despite advances in biometric technology, there is still a significant gap in practical application, particularly for voice biometric systems. When building and developing a voice biometric system, it is necessary to integrate it with an IoT system.</p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong>&nbsp;Literature Review.</p> 2022-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Traffic Flow Prediction using Machine Learning Techniques - A Systematic Literature Review 2022-04-27T07:05:56+00:00 Sigma Sathyan Jagadeesha S. N. <p><strong>Purpose</strong><em>: Traffic control in large cities is extremely tough. To alleviate costs associated with traffic congestion, some nations of the world have implemented Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). This paper reviews the application of artificial neural network (ANN) and machine learning (ML) techniques and also their implementation issues in TFP. Techniques other than ML and ANN have also been discussed.</em></p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> <em>The survey of literature on TFP (TFP) and ITS was conducted using several secondary sources of information such as conference proceedings Journals, Books, and Research Reports published in various publications, and then the kinds of literature that are reported as promising have been included. The collected information is then reviewed to discover possible key areas of concern in the TFP and ITS.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Results:</strong><em> Traffic management in cities is important for smooth traffic flow. TFP and ITS are drawing much attention from researchers these days. Application of ML, ANN, and other techniques are being tried to alleviate the traffic flow problem in cities. TFP using ITS employing ML techniques to overcome the problem of traffic congestion looks promising.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> <em>This review of literature is conducted using secondary data gathered from various sources. The information acquired will be useful to expand on existing theories and frameworks or to develop a new technique or modify to improve the accuracy of TFP. Tables containing categories of prediction, ML Pipelining, open-source ML tools available, standard datasets available have been included.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong><em> Literature Review. </em></p> 2022-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Perspectives, Challenges and Opportunities of E-Learning in Higher Education – A Brief Review 2022-05-10T05:01:56+00:00 R. Aswin Herbert Sathish Nethravathi P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>In this developed world education plays an important role at all stages of an individual. From last one decade the education has been grown and advanced in the form of E-learnings process. The advancement and usage of e-learnings is varied from developing to developed countries. Today in this internet generation, the individuals including teachers and students are connected with various e-learning modes via worldwide internet connection, which makes e-learning process necessary in the field of learning and education. E-learning provides the formal and informal learning atmosphere which encourages the students and learners with live interaction. The recent studies also shows that the e-learning improves the self-assessment, teaching performance and participation of the students. This paper provides the descriptive review of different-learning methodology used in various applications. </em></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> <em>This comprehensive literature analysis includes more than 50 high-quality review articles, research papers, and case studies on e-learning and online education systems. The study takes into account both the teacher's and students' perspectives on the use of e-learning techniques.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>The idea behind empirical methods in e-learning was to better comprehend the complicated approach that is employed when it comes to teaching methodology over the internet. Many ways have been created to make this process competent, including on-the-job learning, in-class assignments, and team-based learning.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> <em>The e-learning process is still a multi-dimensional and sophisticated technique in terms of study. Although technical advancements have seized this field, research and regular case studies are still in short supply. It is necessary to comprehend topics such as the infrastructure utilised to produce technology, pedagogy, admirative supports, and social usage in order to implement the e-learning process.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Literature Review.</em></p> 2022-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Novel Approach of BRELU RESNET Based Cyber Attack Detection System with BAIT Based Approach for Mitigation 2022-05-10T10:17:13+00:00 Sangeetha Prabhu Nethravathi P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Industrial Control Systems become more vulnerable to digital attacks by merging communication groups and the Internet of Things, which could have severe implications. An Intrusion Detection System is essential in IoT businesses for identifying and stopping assaults. To ensure data privacy and security in the face of digital attacks, legislation and large enterprises should develop network security policies today. As people-based full frameworks have become more vital in today's society, they've also become targets for hostile activities, compelling both industry and research to concentrate more on dealing with local area disruption recognition issues. Contraption reviewing techniques have shown to be effective tools for resolving in-network interruption location issues.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>This investigation yielded a very unique strategy for tackling hub moderation utilizing a Classification and Encryption method. The UNSW-NB15 dataset is acquired and divided into Data for preparation and testing from the start. The information is pre-handled and included are eliminated right away within the preparation time frame. The TWM Algorithm is then used to determine the relevant highlights from that moment onward. The BRELU-RESNET classifier then sorts the input into went after and non-went after categories. The compromised information is then saved in the security log record, and the typical data is encrypted using the ESHP-ECC computation. The shortest path distance is then calculated using Euclidean distance. Finally, the data is available. Finally, using the DSHP-ECC computation, the information is decrypted. If the information is available in the log document during testing, it is regarded as the sought-after data and is prevented from the transmission. If it is not present, then the process of digital assault recognition begins.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result</strong>: <em>The research is based on the UNSW-NB 15 dataset, which shows that the proposed method achieves an unreasonable awareness level of 98.34 percent, particularity level of 77.54 percent, exactness level of 96.6 percent, Precision level of 97.96 percent, review level of 98.34 percent, F-proportion of 98.15 percent, False Positive Rate of 22.46 percent, False Negative Rate of 1.66 percent, and Matthew's connection coefficient of 77.38</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>This experimental-based research article examines the malicious activities in the cyberspace using </em><em>BRELU-RESNET approach and mitigated by using BAIT based approach mechanism.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Research Analysis.</em></p> 2022-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Slit Loaded Compact Shaped Patch Antenna for 5GHz Wireless Application 2022-05-16T16:53:36+00:00 Sujata S. K. Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> <em>The study and design of flexible patch antenna with different inset gap width fabricated on RT duriod 5880 substrate for fifth generation wireless application is presented in this article. The patch is composed of slits along the length and width separated by copper ground plane on backside and is directly fed by inset feed. The antennas resonated at multiband characteristics with better return loss (RL) suitable for fifth generation wireless and other indoor communication based applications. Radiation patters are nearly broadsided with a heart like shape for resonant band of frequency.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: T<em>he antenna is designed using a theoretical framework based on known equations as in literature. To construct and model the various antennas, the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) free student edition is employed.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>By the proposed simulated models, </em><em>the slit based patch antenna design 1 has achieved dual band characteristics with bands namely: at fr<sub>1 </sub>= 4.5 GHz (with return loss up to -30 dB) having bandwidth 1.5% and fr<sub>2</sub> = 10.5 GHz <br>(with return loss up to -26 dB) having bandwidth of 2.2%. Whereas, the design 2 has again dual resonances at lower and higher frequency bands with the reduced return loss up to -23 dB at fr<sub>1 </sub>= 4.5 GHz having bandwidth 1.5% and fr<sub>2</sub> = 12.5 GHz with return loss up to -17 dB having bandwidth of 14%. Hence, the antenna design 2 has achieved the maximum bandwidth of 14% suitable for wireless applications, RADAR, Fixed-satellite services. </em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>The design of slits cut on&nbsp;patch by&nbsp;varying inset feed width gap on flexible substrate for 5G frequency band is investigated.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Original Research Contribution.</em></p> 2022-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Predictive Analytics on Contractual Faculty Future Retention Rate in Rural Areas of India with the help of Clinical Stress cum Retention Rate Model 2022-05-17T05:15:56+00:00 Vishal Mahajan Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Predictive Analytics study has been conducted on contractual faculty working in various engineering and management colleges in the border area of Gurdaspur, Punjab to find the retention rate of these faculty members against the various personnel policies adopted by these institutions.</em></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong><em>Stress is described as a state of physiological unevenness. Albeit contemporary education sector in an eminent country such as India where regular jobs become penurious obsolete perhaps people still accord in this sector because of their interest in the teaching. On the contrary, most of the new faculty work on contract basis and their jobs are not secured or may be secured for a few months depending upon the contract period. A repercussion of this probe, the purpose of the exploration is to review job satisfaction level and their retention rate.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>Study has been conducted with the help of non-probability convenient sampling by distributing questionnaires and conducting interviews on 150 faculty members working on a contract basis in government and private engineering and management colleges surrounding near an area of Gurdaspur district of Punjab, India.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>Personnel policies, faculty development, career growth, research support and work culture, all these parameters should clearly have considered by the administration of the engineering and management colleges of district Gurdaspur, Punjab during making any policies for the contact faculty in the future so that their satisfaction level and retention rate won’t be affected.</em></p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications: </strong><em>Research has been conducted in Gurdaspur district of Punjab. Findings may vary from other geographical area of country. Study only covers faculty members; non-teaching faculty has not been covered in this study. Time constraint is another factor for the limiting sample size.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/New knowledge/Interpretation/Value: </strong><em>Paradoxical to previous studies, this study</em><em> also tests out the connection between anxiety feeling with job security of contract faculty dwelling in engineering colleges of Punjab, India with the aid of a stress model to assess the future of teaching in rural areas.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Analytical Research paper</em></p> 2022-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Planning Assessment of Transport System: A Case from Nepal 2022-05-27T04:02:22+00:00 A. K. Mishra Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Road infrastructure is considered as “the infrastructure for infrastructure”. Planning assessment of the transport system is done for assessing and planning the present road and transport infrastructures and facilities within the municipality and the surrounding local bodies. The research aims to analyse the planning of the transport system of Devchuli Municipality for recommending pragmatic solution of transport problems.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>Devchuli Municipality is located in Nawalparasi East district of Gandaki Province in Nepal. Municipality is divided into 17 wards, covers 112.72 km2 area. Municipality is populated with different castes and religions with population of 49,637. It consists of 12025 households with population density of 440 persons per and 4.13 people per household. Data were collected using Official document, Key informant interview, Field Survey, and observation and analyzed using Content, Origin and Destination (OD) Survey, Road Inventory Survey, Classified Vehicle Count Survey, Public Transport and Services Study.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>Municipal Transport Master Plan (MTMP) started with the setup of Municipal Road Coordination Committee (MRCC) and the collection of demand and inventory of road within the municipality. Road inventory survey was done and the length of the roads collected is about 339.67 km (without SRN) From the sample data it is found that nearly 11% of the mode of transportation is shared by active road users hence footpath is proposed on the roads. Visionary city development and Indicative Development Potential Plan is studied with which the existing and potential market center/service centers (key growth centers) and the areas having various development potentials such as agro-based industries, high value cash crops and tourism. </em></p> <p><em>This study also formulated the road hierarchy for the various roads namely Class A, B, C and D. Class C and D basically deals with access while Class A and B basically deal with mobility and accessibility to higher services. Total cost for the required interventions proposed is calculated based on the rates of ToR for 5 years and was found to be approximately 794 million rupees.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>It is action research. This study helps to develop a Visionary city development plan for Pragmatic solutions for issues of transport.</em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong><em>Ex-Post Facto Research</em></p> 2022-05-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Real-Time Customer Satisfaction Analysis using Facial Expressions and Head Pose Estimation 2022-05-31T14:56:00+00:00 Nethravathi P. S. Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Background/Purpose:</strong> <em>Quantification of consumer interest is an interesting, innovative, and promising trend in marketing research. For example, an approach for a salesperson is to observe consumer behaviour during the shopping phase and then recall his interest.&nbsp; However, the salesperson needs unique skills because every person may interpret their behaviour in a different manner.&nbsp; The purpose of this research is to track client interest based on head pose positioning and facial expression recognition.</em></p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong><em> We are going to develop a quantifiable system for measuring customer interest.&nbsp; This system recognizes the important facial expression and then processes current client photos and does not save them for later processing.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong><em>The work describes a deep learning-based system for observing customer actions, focusing on interest identification. The suggested approach determines client attention by estimating head posture. The system monitors facial expressions and reports customer interest. The Viola and Jones algorithms are utilized to trim the facial image.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Results</strong><strong>:</strong> <em>The proposed method identifies frontal face postures, then segments facial mechanisms that are critical for facial expression identification and creating an iconized face image. Finally, the obtained values of the resulting image are merged with the original one to analyze facial emotions. </em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:<em>&nbsp; </em></strong><em>This method combines local part-based features with holistic facial information. The obtained results demonstrate the potential to use the proposed architecture as it is efficient and works in real-time.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Paper Type: </em></strong><em>Conceptual </em><em>Research.</em></p> 2022-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Quantitative ABCD Analysis of Online Shopping 2022-06-01T04:25:26+00:00 Dsouza Prima Frederick Sujaya H. Meghana Salins <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>The central focus of the study is to study ABCD Analysis Framework for Online Shopping and determine the major affecting factor for Online Shopping.</em></p> <p><strong>Design: </strong><em>Published scholarly articles were referred to understand the concept. The Focus group interaction method was used to analyze major affecting factors for Online Shopping</em>.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> <em>Results of the study found that among four factors, Advantages factor impacts more towards its prosperity. </em></p> <p><strong>Originality: </strong><em>The paper contributes in understanding various affecting factors towards online shopping. </em></p> <p><strong>Type of Paper: </strong><em>Empirical Analysis</em></p> 2022-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Systematic Review on Innovation Factors and Appreciative Intelligence 2022-06-27T15:15:19+00:00 M. Vishwanath Pai Aithal P. S. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong><em>Innovation is a critical phenomenon for an organization to be successful and need of the hour for an organization to stay ahead in the competition.&nbsp; Innovation is the result of ‘out of the box thinking’ in an organization and is essential in this competitive world for its survival.</em> <em>Appreciative Intelligence is the way forward to identify the opportunities and to focus on growth. The future foreseen through Appreciative Intelligence can be made successful with the Innovation factors. Although through Appreciative Intelligence the future is foreseen from the present, for economic success Innovation is needed. To beat the competition and to spur economic growth innovation is an essential phenomenon. Innovation is the result of multidimensional complex factors. These factors are both tangible and intangible. Thus it is essential to assess the synergy between the factors which have a significant influence on innovation and appreciative intelligence.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: <em>Developing a theoretical concept based on a voluminous literature review and analysis of the result of interaction with the professionals across 12 countries. </em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Result: </strong><em>Based on the developed theoretical conceptual model it is argued that both the factors which have a significant influence on innovation and the features of Appreciative Intelligence complement each other. Thus an organization that has both can envisage the opportunities or create the opportunities and realize the objectives by overcoming all the obstacles.</em></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong><em>A new conceptual model titled ApI<sup>2</sup>Factors (Appreciative Intelligence-Innovation Factors) which is a secret to everlasting success for an organization </em></p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong>Conceptual Research</p> 2022-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022